Speech on Role of a University


  • Introduction: historic role of the university
  • Functions of the university: the spread of ideal education: social responsibilities
  • Direct sphere of activin: the indirect sphere of activity
  • Necessary conditions are guaranteed the university
  • Conclusion

In the present set-up of human society, the university occupies a position of unique’ importance, by virtue of the historic functions that have come to devolve on it. Its importance has particularly grown beyond all proportions since the time when the basic criterion of national greatness began to shift from wealth to culture. Since then no other institution has exercised more influence in guiding the present and molding the future of any nation nor has earned it greater honor from abroad. What we find England to-day, nationally and internationally, is largely the contribution of her Oxford and Cambridge. The vast colonial empire of Great Britain has collapsed her naval or industrial supremacy, no longer exists but universities still continue to receive the highest respect from all over the world. It is, therefore, no wonder that the university to-day has become the center of public attention in every country of the world. For this reason, every nation is now carnest to build her universities on an ideal planc, so as to cnsure the proper discharge of its great responsibilities.

What should be the standard of an ideal university? In other words, what functions should a given university be called upon to discharge in order to justify its claim to idealism? The test, though simple in nature, is vet difficult to pass. The first and the only business of the university is to diffuse or assists in the diffusion of learning only that university can be said to have played its part fully which contributes to the spread of ideal education in the country: What is, then, ideal education? It would be too inadequate and abstract to say, as Prof. A.E. Johnson. docs. that “Education is the creation of finer human hunger”. He has obviously its higher purposcs in view. But education is also needed to scrvc lower ends. Can a man, however highly cducated, think of any higher pursuit of life, if his existencom is in question? Hence, to a man of our agc. when the struggle for breast and butter is harder than ever education is of no worth if it does not help him secure his bare existence. That is to say, modern education must combine the opportunities and equipment for satisfying both physical and mental hunger. It is such an education that a modern university must diffuse.

But obviously, the university is not and cannot be an employment exchange bureau to secure means of livelihood to the people. That does not, however, relieve it of its social obligations. If any university retires to the ivory-tower of isolation in disregard of the needs and problems of society and wants to diffuse abstract learning for those few who are ready to learn for learning’s sake, it may do so but society at large will have no truck with it because it does not exist for social utility. Such a university can be called anything but ideal. Hence, it is clear that only that university can be said to play its full part which exists in the society and delicates’ itself to the service to social needs and interests.

The functions of a modern university fall into two broad categories. In its direct sphere, the university has to conduct’s higher cducation and research in all the branches of Arts and Sciences. It is mainly here that talents are to be discovered and given ample scopes for expression. To that end, it must possess a well-equipped library, up-to-date seminars, and laboratories, together with a brilliant staff of teachers consisting of the best in these respective subjects. Of great importance is the method of university instruction. It is the backbone of university cducation. It should, therefore, be so framed and executed as to turn out not products but free and independent human beings who can think. The need of the hour is men and women of balance mind, strong will, broad outlook, and unprejudiced judgment. It is they who can handle the affairs of life efficiently and lead the society to progress. The direct responsibility of producing such persons rests on the university.

In its indirect sphere too, the university, unless it is an entirely residential institution, has to play an important role in organizing the national cducation for creating better avenues of social happiness. It has the essential tasks of formulating educational curricula and syllabuses of study and also of publishing textbooks for the study of college students. The university, again, bears the overall responsibility of guiding and supervising the management and activities of its affiliated colleges. The holding of various examinations is another important task that it has to perform. Even in respect of Secondary and Primary cducation which is outside the usual scope of its responsibility, the university has some contribution to make by way of counseling the authorities concerned in their organization and management. There can, in short, be no sphere of cducation in a country, from the top to the bottom, with which the university is not to remain connected, directly or circuitously.

The proper performance of the university’s role is, however, dependent on the existence of certain conditions. Firstly, it must be free from any kind of financial encumbrances. Its demands must receive priority in any national budget. Secondly, the university must be an autonomous institution, functioning freely and independent of any extraneous control or interference. Thirdly, it is necessary to house the university within the area of some city and not far from the madding crowd. For, students receiving education in the so-called university towns often develop an unhealthy ivory-tower attitude and remain largely unacquainted with the hard realities of life. Thus the real purpose of cducation is defeated. Such isolation also makes higher cducation expensive and inaccessible to the average man of to-day. In conclusion, as we have already said, the university has come to assume the present momentous role vis-a-vis our society by force of the inexorable law of necessity. Any government that aims at progress should recognize this fact and submit to it. It is, therefore, certain that any state attempting to curb its functions or restricted its liberties would only contribute to its own national disaster.

Speech on Literature & Education


  • Two aspects of the question: academic and extra-academic
  • For long literature monopolized education: challenge arose recently with the growth of science and the problems of existence
  • Literature is of high existential utility too: it perfects education: all education should have the touch of literature because it is the grammar of human nature
  • Extra-academic utility of studying literature

The relation of Literature to cducation is to be judged in two aspects. Firstly, what is the place of literature in education as it is given in the academic sphere? Secondly, what role Literature plays in extra-academic education. The first is a question of ascertaining the position of Literature, that is, to determine the degree of emphasis to be laid on it. while formulating the curriculum of national cducation. The second relates to the appreciation of the contribution that the study of Literature makes in lending perfection to the academic cducation imparted in schools and colleges.

As to the first, the question has arisen in recent times with the growing importance of Science in rclation to human life. Devised at a time when existence was not half so difficult as now, cducation was meant to flower the mind which the study of Literature and Philosophy could do successfully and perfectly. Not to speak of Physics Chemistry or Technology, even Economics, Commerce or such other subjects having a circuitous bearing on existence did not enter the arena of cducation. Unrelated to any question of existence, it was pursued by those whose life was secure and, was, therefore, largely concerned with the abstract’s pursuit of knowledge and learning.

Naturally. Literature was thought to be adequately, sound as the basis of such education. But as time went on, the foundation appeared to be shaky and unstable before the attacks of reality. Science by its achievements began to engage the attention of man more and more. The number of pcople cnjoying security of life began to dwindle down at a rapid spccd. No longer did it remain possible to pursue cducation without reference to its practical utility. Hence subjects of utilitarian value. Science, Economics, and Commerce came to receive great importance for the purpose of the study. Obviously, they could serve the needs of life much better than Literature which, therefore, began to be relegated more and more to the background. Out of this contest between literature and its powerful rivals’ arose the question Should the study of Literature be dropped altogether? If not, what should be its place in the scheme of modern cducation?

There is no denying that modern man would be reluctant to do anything which does not help his existence. As science docs it most, he is studying science with the top-most attention and will continue to do so as long as conditions require. Next comes the place of other subjects, such as Economics, Commerce and even Political Science which to have great existential value. He is, therefore, paying them attention next to Science. As Literature serves the direct purposes of lifeless than these, it stands, in order of importance, at a notch lower than both. It is the supreme law of necessity which is determining the respective position of each in the scheme of human study.

Literature may not have a high utilitarian value as Physics or Economics has, but that does not mean that its necessity for life is equally low. Man’s life is made of the interaction of two things–the body and the mind. To train him for life means to develop both the body and the mind. And in the realm of the latter, Literature has almost the absolute role to play. To face life and overcome its difficulties successfully, one must gain thorough access into it and bc acquainted with all the forces that determine its working. This calls for the study of Literature which, in fact, deals with the stuff which lite is made of Life’s battle is largely the problem of handling and competing with a variety of fellow human beings. Their feelings. sentiments passions and devices are very important factors in that battle.

By expressing and analyzing the emotions that have influenced mankind through the ages, Literature helps to secure us a firm grasp of the human mind. Literature, in short, ripens and sharpens our feelings brings us into contact with new experiences, improves our sensibility, gives us a depth of perception and finally equips us with patience, tolerance, and largeness of temper. All these faculties are unquestionably essential for fighting the life’s battle to our advantaget. Hence the study of Literature is of high existential value as well. Taking all these into consideration, it can be said that the study of Literature can never be eliminated except by making education incomplete and imperfect.

Hence the need of blending Literature and Science in other words, arts, and science. But even in a purely arts education, Literature is as greatly important, for, what Literature docs in educating and preparing the mind, no other subject can cver do. It is, therefore, advisable to make Literature the foundation of all patterns of education and upto a certain stage its study should be made compulsory Thus, not only the students of Intermcdiatc Arts or Science should read it as a part of their syllabus, but also those studying medicine and engineering should not be totally cut off from its association. As all men, whether doctors, enginccrs or professors, have to live by tackling fellow human beings, it is important that they should all study the grammar of human nature which Literature really is.

Apart from academic instruction, the study of Literature has great value in extra-academic cducation. Academic education, whether scientific or literary or mixed, only initiates us into certain subjects and acquaints us with bare rudiments. It is actually in the post-academic student life that we have to develop these rudiments, expand them and understand them in their proper spirit and perspective. But life is so pathetically short that we can never explore to our satisfaction all the essential realms of knowledge, such as History, Geography, Politics, Economics and, above all, the Sciences. So we need a shortcut. It is here that Literature renders an invaluable service. Well-chosen book of Literature, sav. Bernard Shaw’s Back to Methuselah, serves at once to combine Biology, History, Politics and drama, all presented in such a charming style and forceful language that we derive, not only boundless joy out of that masterpieces but also learn a good deal on all these subjects with the additional advantage that what is Learned from here is remembered longer than what may be obtained from theoretical books.

How to Remove Mass Illiteracy Speech


  • Illiteracy; one of the major ills: need for literacy
  • General schools cannot help: a new set of schools needs
  • Scope of such schools
  • Compulsory and free primary schools
  • What type of mass education should be given?
  • Arrangement of teaching more visual aids than theoretical lessons: course must be short
  • Conditions for the success of mass literacy drive

Illiteracy of the general mass is one of the major ills from which country suffers in common with other backward countries. The necessity of giving some education to one and al cannot be disputed, for has been recognized as the birthright of every individual in a free state. Mass ignorance defeats all attempts at progress and darkens the of the nation. Nothing can be pleaded as an excuse for keeping an in a gloom, state of semi-blindness, helplessly groping in the DUComh of ignorance, superstition, and fear. The sooner illiteracy it emoved the better it will be for the individual and the community to at large.

The schools we have at present are for children whose age ranges from 6 to 16. The syllabuses and the curriculum followed in these institutes arc cast into a certain pattern and designed to prepare boys and girls for higher academic education in different lines. Their schools can of no practical use for mass. the vast majority of whom are grown-up men and women. Therefore, a new set of schools have to be introduced for giving education to these people. These may be called schools for adults.

We have to keep within view certain facts regarding these cducation centers. Our population being very large, the number of these schools will have to be proportionately considerable at Icast one in each locality of three or four villages. The adult education centers cannot aspire to have grand school buildings, and that is needless too. These schools will aim at imparting some elementary enlightenment along with a little better knowledge of the vocation the learners pursue. The subject-maters and also the method of teaching in adult schools will differ greatly from those of ordinary schools. As most adults are busily earning their bread in the daytime, it will be convenient for them to attend schools if classes are taken at night.

In this country, only a small minoring of the children get the opportunity of attending schools regularly. A number of schools in the villages fall far short of what it should be. The existing schools are in such a deplorable condition that they beggar descriptions. So a staggering number of school-going children stand in need of some facilities for rudimentary’s education. To that end, compulsory and free primary schools should be started to accommodate these neglected? future citizens of the country.

Mass literacy should never be confined to the three R’s. It must also aim at making the learners useful and capable of applying the new acquisition to the caring of their bread. Efforts should, therefore, be, made to teach them some trade and to that end, every adult education center should be so planned and equipped as to be able to impart a large variety of vocational training. Thousands of our illiterate people are unemplureel because they have neither any land to cultivate nor any finished knowledge of the arts and crafts. If such people can be taught various handicrafts, such as weaving, carpentry pottery, smithery canings as also trained in the handling of small machinery, their unemployment problem will be considered solved. Over and above mass education centers should take special care to impart knowledge of scientific agriculture, of health and sanitation and also give the learners some sort of civic training so as to make them fit for good citizenship.

The arrangement of imparting instruction shall be as usual, like other schools. There will be salaried teachers and students shall attend a regular course of training given free of cost. In the matter of teaching, however, more emphasis should be laid on visual aids. Motion pictures and cinema-scopes can be used profitably in giving wide lessons in a short time. As is well known, visual aid quickens perception. vivifies the experience and Icaves a lasting impression on the mind. none of which books can achieve so successfully. Every education center should also possess a radio. some newspapers and periodicals and a large variety of books. through which useful information from all over the world may be gathered and Icarncd. Particular care should be taken to ensure that the course of instruction may not spread over a long time as the illiterate folk has neither patience nor time to spend long rears in Learning. Every batch of Icamers must be turned out before the novel of the new experience wears out. Else, if they get tired and bored, they will fight shy of the schools and invent many devices to keep away.

No plan, modest or magnificent, can ever succeed in the absence of two conditions. In this case, they are all the more important. The first is the cost of organizing the whole program establishing education centers paving the salary of teachers. buying books and other equipment and also defraying current expenses. It is no use asking the people to come forward. They will not, as they have not in the past. It is for the state to initiate and launch upon the drive and creepers to come forward. They will not, as they have not in the past. It is for the state to initiate and launch upon the drive and even compel the people initially to come and learn at the centers. But no amount of persuasion or compulsion will bear the real fruit unless the subjects of the plan are in a position to take advantage of the governmental endeavors. This relates to the economic condition. How can we expect, the starvings and semi starving mass of people to have any interest in the enlightenment of the soul when their body is at stake. It is only when they have to square meals a day and some leisure to while out that they will come to the centers voluntarily and learn something. To make the program of mass literacy successful, it is, therefore essential to keep in VICE the question of removing the current appalling powers of the masses.

Medium of Instruction Speech


  • Introduction: a peculiar problem faced by Pakistan: different with that of India: yet a latent problem: largely a problem of higher education
  • Two solutions suggested: retention of English not acceptable: why not: difficulties of introducing Urdu
  • No third alternative left: hence Urdu with safeguard
  • No real solution but a compromise: accessories may be worked out in course of time

Unlike any other country of the world, Pakistan is faced with a peculiar? question of determining the future medium of her public instruction. True it is that India too is confronted with the same problem. But hers is not so difficult as that of Pakistan and not also of the same nature. Because India has one single state language for the whole country and can conveniently fall back upon Hindi, her lingua Franca, as and · when English is dislodged. But in Pakistan, we have two recognized state languages. Hence the patent solution of teaching through the state language does not apply to our problem because there cannot be two media of instruction in one and the same institution.

It is, of course, true that the problem of the medium of teaching is vet a latent question. It is because we are to-day learning through English in the higher stages, while Bengali and Urdu have been adopted for the secondary and primary ones. But to-morrow or two days later the issue will become patent as, sooner or later, Pakistan will have to decide finally upon the issue of her medium of instruction. The problem of the medium of teaching is, again, largely a problem of higher education. Upto the secondary stage Bengali in the East and Urdu in the West, as the arrangement now exists may well serve the purpose. But is only reasonable that higher students in both the wings be taught through one common medium to establish summer and harmonics in the final stages of national education? This is necessary because many of such students will have to undertake works and hand affairs that will extend beyond the territorial jurisdiction of one wing or the other.

Two solutions have so far been suggested. One is to retain English as it now stands. The other is to introduce Bengali and Urdu in East and West Pakistan respectively in all the grades of education. Of those, the first is more catchy and has for its votaries many eminent public men of the country. The second is more a via media than a solution of the tangle.

The first suggestion is untenable for three reasons in the main. Firstly, it’s derogatory to the national prestige of any sovereign state to adopt permanently the state language of another state as her medium of instruction. To be able to Icarn and teach through one’s national language or languages constitutes one of the important elements of state sovereignty. China, the whosc national language has the poorest vocabulary and the clumsiest alphabets in the world can never be persuaded to adopt Russian as her medium of instruction for all the superiorities of the Russian language and despite the closest friendship between the two countries. China’s right to teach and learn through her own language is an inalienable part of her national prestige and pride. So is ours and we cannot, therefore, cling permanently to the apron-string of English when our state languages Bengali and Urdu are among the richest in the world. Secondly, it will create a sense of cultural inferiority among our people and concentrate the nation’s attention on English. This will seriously retard the development of our national languages and make English the virtual state language of Pakistan. Thirdly, acquisition of knowledge through a foreign tongue involves a colossal wastage of labor and makes education difficult, abstracts and imperfectly. Hence all over the world, mother-tongue is admittedly the natural medium because through it man Iearns easily and comfortably and acquires concrete and realistic education.

But to add to our difficulty have not what may be called a brother-tongue for the whole nation. In its stead, we have two national languages–Bengali and Urdu. The former is the mother-tongue of East Pakistan and the latter has gained the same status in West Pakistan. Hence the introduction of Bengali in the East and Urdu in the West seems to resolve the tangle. But it does not untie all the knots of the issue. A graduate from West Pakistan, for instance, would, in that case, remain entirely ignorant of Bengali which is the official language in the other wing, and through which every work there is carried on whether in the office. the school or the business market. If such a graduate is called upon to handle affairs whose application extends into East Pakistan, he will prove unfit for the job. If he is to carn his living in the East, as many of each wing will always be in need of doing so in the other zone of the State will find himself at sea with no knowledge of the language through which every affair here, whether public or private, is managed. Greatest difficulty will be faced by the Central Government whose officers and staff are always to handle matters relating to both the wings which they are ignorant cither of Bengali or of Urdu. Above all, such a scheme of education has the danger of creating a sense of separateness in both the wings and thus weakening the basis of our national solidarity.

Where then, can we go for a solution Evidently we are left with no third alternative Placed in this tight corner, I feel inclined towards the natural medium of instruction for each of the two wings, that is, Bengali for the East and Urdu for the West. but with some sufegrurils to eliminite the probable evils outlined above. The best safeguard consists in the provision of teaching Urdu here with the same emphasis as is now laid on English. It will not be an additional burden, as may be apprehended because the proposal envisages nothing more than replacing English to a large extent by Bengali or Urdu where it is not the medium of instruction. The teaching of English too may be returned but with far less importance.

Obvious this suggestion offers more a compromise than a solution of the problem. It is not cast cither to find out One such. Our state language issue had to be resolved by means of a via media whose offshoot is the problem under discussion. Here also, therefore, a compromise is the only way out. Once this settlement is adopted on principle accessories may be worked out in a decade time. Till that period English as it now is may remain the ad intern medium of instruction.

Scientific Versus Literary Education Speech


  • A controversy of recent origin
  • Advantages of literary education
  • Advantages of scientific education
  • Controversy settled: supreme lav of necessity: the craze for scientific education
  • Need for synthesis

The contest between scientific and literary education is of comparatively- recent origin. For centuries after the idea of education was born, education was understood to mean literary education, concerned entirely with the study of the various branches of arts. In those days man had no knowledge of Science, much less any sense of its utility. Even for years after its inception, Science had only a minor place in the curriculum of studies, the privileged position still belonging to Literature and Language, History and Philosophy. But in the middle of the 19th century, the balance of the scale began to change rapidly. As a result of spectacular developments in Physics, Chemistry and Biology, the study of Science assumed growing importance day by day. And since the dawn of the 20th century, Science came to occupy such a prominent place in human life, foreign her way into every hearth and home, that the study of Science became an inescapable necessity. Here a controversylı arose: To what extent should Science be allowed to take precedence over Literature and other branches of Arts. The dispute raged or over a quarter of a century and was participated in by a wide range of educationists and scholars all over the world.

The advocates of Arts, that is to say, of literary education-based their stand primarily on what has been known as the ultimate purpose of education, namely, the flowering of the mind’. They argued that the mind can never receive adequate means of expression without the study of Literature and allied subjects. In their opinion, Literature stimulates the imagination, refines the thoughts, humanizes the outlook, widens the vision, ennobles the spirit and ultimately gives to the mind the priceless gift of peace and bliss. Its study, they claim, makes man rational, humane and cultured. The dividing line between civilization and savagery is also claimed to be maintained by the pursuit of Arts. Literature is further said to secure mastery over language and make expression forceful, vivid and picturesque. The advocates of Arts go to the extent of accusing Science of turning men into machines, before of human feelings and consideration. A world dominated by scientists, they say, would, therefore, be unfit for man to live in. Hence, according to them, it would be disastrous to sacrifice the study of Literature on the altar of Science.

The advocates of scientific education, on the other hand, starts with pointing out the outstanding position already occupied by Science and goes on to assert that it is the supreme law of necessity that has installed Science in that eminent position. According to them mankind, in the face of mounting economic problems of the world, can be saved from extinction only by the extensive study of Science and its application in harnessing the resources of Nature to the service of humanity. To these, they add, in reply to the accusation of their opponents, that far from turning men into machines, Science makes them human beings in the real sense by setting their souls free from the bondage of age-old prejudice and superstitions. While Literature, they argue, serves to make man credulous, passive and acquiescent, it is science that makes him critical, observant, inquisitive and assertive. Literature may give his speech the mist of rhetoric but Science imparts to it the clarity of logic.

The dispute between Science and Arts has practically subsided, though a verdict as to the superiority of the one on the other has not yet been pronounced. It is not necessary either. Due to its tidal expansion in various directions, so powerful has been the force of circumstances in favor of Science in the last two decades that Literature had to give way quietly. Driven by the supreme law of necessity, man has dislodged literature from its pride of place and elevated. Science to the present state of unquestionable superiority over any other branch of study. Hence it is impossible to conceive of education to-day in which Science has not only a place but also the most dominant place. The craze for scientific education has become so extensive that in the course of the next one-decade arts subjects may find their place by the side of classical subjects like Arabic and Sanskrit.

But, we are afraid, Science is being overdone. No ultimate good can lie in this unusual emphasis on Science to the exclusion of Arts. Man is, after all, a psychic animal, a combination of the body and the mind. He needs food for both in an equal measure. There is no deniało that Science can help him most in securing the means of his existence. But existence alone is not all that he lives and strives for. He must, therefore, study Literature, taken in its entirety, to feed his mind. He cannot build his future without a thorough knowledge of the past. He must; therefore, study History. As an enlightened citizen, he has to know the laws and forces that guide and regulate the political and economic systems of the world. This calls for the study of Political Science and Economics. He must as well read Philosophy to pry into the working of the metaphysical world. In short, an ideal scheme of education must be built upon a careful synthesis of the sciences and the arts blended together. It is then and then only that we can hope for the birth of a new human race whose mastery over science coupled with a robust idealism born of arts will make the world a better place to live in.

There are no secrets better kept than the secrets everybody guesses.

Speech on Co-education


  • Introduction: a living controversy: nature and extent of the controversy
  • Arguments against co-education: dangers of free mixing: need of the separate type of education for girls
  • Advocacy for co-education: an inescapable economic expedient
  • Synthesis consideration of the issue on practical grounds
  • Safeguards to be provided
  • Conclusion: need of a trial

One of the living controversies of our time, particularly in our country, is co-education, by which is meant the education of boys and girls under the same roof. The issue is perfectly settled so far as primary education is concerned. In the college and the university stage, it is passively tolerated. But in the secondary stage co-education is actively opposed. In fact, the controversy about co-education all over the world mainly centers around the secondary stage of education. Even in those countries, notably the USA, where co-education has been introduced in all stages of public instruction, its soundness in the second stage is being widely doubted and debated upon. And in our country co-education even in the college and the university, though tolerated, is yet subject to a wide range of opposition.

The opposition to co-education is based in the main on two arguments. Firstly, it is advanced that boys and girls being allowed to mix freely run every risk of going astray and suffering the total frustration of their educational career. These consequences are apprehended because at this period–the period of adolescence’s both boys and girls remain very sentimental, romantic, effusively and inflammable. On the other hand, they possess no power to resist the tide of emotion. Instances are drawn from America to show the extent of harm done by the introduction of secondary co-education in that country where large number of boys and girls are said to love and marry before leaving the school. Reference is also made to the co-education of our colleges and universities where it has not yielded altogether happy results. Secondly, it is contended that girls should receive a different type of education from that given to boy’s, because their spheres of activities in the practical life are widely different. As co-education in essence means that girls will be educated in boy’s institutions under a scheme of education primarily meant to suit the needs of the latter the education of girls under this system is bound to remain imperfect. It would not, therefore, equip them to face the battle of life with success.

The advocacy for co-education is based chiefly on economic considerations. Maintenance of separate institutions for boys and girls is a costly affair. This is particularly so in rural areas where even boys’ schools suffer for want of a sufficient number of students. It is also pointed out that most of the village girls having crossed the primary stage find it compelling to give up their studies for want of school. As regards college education, a separate college for girls is extremely difficult to be maintained without heavy Government subsidy except in a city of the standard of Dacca or Karachi. Hence co-education is claimed to be essential if our girls are to be education is claimed to be essential if our girls are to be educated.

Viewed from the practical standpoint, the problem may be reduced to a simpler one than it ordinarily appears. There is no doubt or denial that the crying need of the hour is the widest diffusion of female education at least up to the Matriculation standard. It is all the more necessary for the lower-middle-class people for two reasons. Firstly, their educated wives and daughters are needed to earn and supplement the low income of the family. Such earning capacity also makes easy the matrimonial’s settlement of girls. Secondly, middle class educated boys of the day hardly agree to marry girls who have not at least completed the secondary education. To meet these all, particularly in the face of our economic circumstances,” co-education is evidently the best expedient because this alone can keep education within the reach of all who need it.

Then, against the oft-cited harms of co-education, its various other benefits too should be measured. In the long run, boys and girls are to live and move in society together and fight the battle of life jointly. Would it not be to the interest of both to bring them closer at an early stage so that they may gradually get used to each other and thus get rid of the unhealthy sex curiosity and craze from which most of our boys and girls living in isolation suffer. A grown-up boy would also find greater stimulus in the company of a grown-up girl. He would be more smart, more politc and more civil when his bchaviour is observed by the opposite sex. The closer association of both would also help to create an atmosphere of hcalthy rivalry and inspire them to emulate each other’s virtucs. It some of them happen to come still closer and develop emotional attachment for each other, it may also do good in many cases. Who can deny that a girl has been gifted with tremendous powers to influence a boy’s course of life? She can inspire him to success, resist his failure and also restrain him from evil ways.

So, it is evident that co-education is not entirely fraughtła with dangers. It is equally rich in immense prospects. What is, therefore, necessary is to provide safeguards against its misuse so that society can benefit from it without any harm. To that end, separate benches may be provided for the boys and girls. The girls’ block may even be isolated by a breast-high partition. Like their common room, girls should have a separate playground. Wherever available, male and female teachers should constitute the staff. This will facilitate the enforcement of general discipline as also make the girls feel at home. Their precautions are, however, necessary for the secondary schools where the system is to be introduced almost anew. As to the college, the system has already been universally popular by virtue of showing good results. And at the university level co-education is so firmly seated that no discussion about it need ever be called for. In fine, human society is progressing by leaps and bounds. To oppose co-education now would be to try to put the clock back which can never produce good to the society. Apart from the colleges and universities of our country, co-education prevails in all the missionary schools and convents and also in some national high schools, without any large-scale harm resulting to anybody.

Speech on An Ideal College


  • Introduction: the age of ideals
  • Essentials of an ideal college: assets and equipment: situation: routine: class arrangement: extra-academic pursuits: academic atmosphere
  • Conclusion

Ours is an age of ideals. To seek to achieve perfection in every sphere of life is the order of the day. As in politics, we have been striving to establish an ideal form of Government, so in education, there is an unremitting endeavor to introduce an ideal pattern of instruction. The concept of ideal college is a necessary outcome of this endeavor because ideal institutions alone can carry out a plan of an ideal education.

The question of an ideal college is inseparable from the question of the ends of education. Since education is primarily concerned with the acquisition of knowledge, it is said that the supreme purpose of education is to help the flowering of the mind” and “the creation of finer human hunger” . This view of education is, however, correct only in part because it tends to disregard the role of the body in the acquisition of knowledge. Since it is undeniable that the mind, however keen and powerful, cannot function properly in the absence of a reasonably healthy body, any sound plan of education must include the harmonious development of the intellectual and physical faculties of the students. To this must also be added the inculcations of morals virtues in the pupils without which education is of no real worth. Considered in this context, an ideal college is that institution which, in course of its instruction, provides adequate facilities for the intellectual enrichment, physical well-being and moral elevation of the students. To achieve these ends, an ideal college needs certain assets and equipment which are discussed below.

The first indispensable asset of an ideal college, in fact, of any college worth the name, is a learned staff of teachers, quite sufficient in number for each subject. The teaching staff must be so ‘handsomely paid and provided with other amenities of life that they may find sufficient incentive to work with single-minded devotion. They also must possess a high standard of character which their students may, and are apt to, imitate and emulate. The next important conditions are a sizeable building, with spacious, airy and lighted rooms, a rich library with an attached reading room, a well-equipped laboratory, a standard common room, a well-furnished gymnasium, and an extensive playground.

The situation of the college is of great importance. An ideal college must, of necessity, be located in or about a town where alone the students can avail themselves of all the facilities of modern life which they need to acquire an up-to-date education. But to avoid the noise and bustle of urban society and to ensure a placid environment,” which is essential for the undisturbed prosecution of studies, the college should be situated in a quiet locality away from the busy and noisy areas of the town. Care must, however, be taken that students residing in all parts of the town and its suburbs may attend the college without any difficulty. To that end, an ideal college should have its own bus service.

As the primary function of an ideal college is to meet in full the academic needs of the students, that is, to train them up in their respective courses of study so well that they may easily get through the examinations, the importance of a balanced routine of classes can never be over-estimated. Regular lecture classes, supplemented by a network of tutorial!! and demonstration lessons, should be held daily. The routine must, however, provide for enough of leisure during which the teachers may rest and prepare for next classes and the students may read and recreate in the common room and the library. Rational plants of academic instruction must always eliminate all elements of monotony, from both teaching and learning.

Equally important is the arrangement of classes. The maximum roll strength of a general class should be one hundred and fifty and that of a tutorial class, twenty. Tutorial groups should be made not on the seriality of rolls but on a consideration of merit and intelligence. To underline the importance of tutorial classes, class promotion, and selection for the University examinations should be made largely dependent on the students tutorial records.

To lend perfection to their academic attainments an ideal college must ensure that its students take part in a large variety of extra-academic activities. These include the holding of regular debates and speech competitions, the publication of magazines, the staging of theatricals and variety performances and the organization of exhibitions, picnics, and other outdoor pursuits.

No ideal college can ignore the fact that a splendid body alone is the abode of a healthy mind which the college strives to train and flower. A sound body again is the surest custodians of a high character. The authorities of an ideal college must, therefore, see that the students may take part in all kinds of games, sports, and physical exercises. This will not only build their bodies but also recreate their minds and train them in the practical lessons of discipline, co-operation, and comradeship. The college physician must examine the health of the students from time to time and advise them on treatment, diet, and exercise. As good food is essential for good health, the college should maintain a canteen where food will be prepared under the supervision of college authorities and served to the students at a cheap rate. Modern education being a strenuous affair, students and teachers both need healthy refreshments during the college hours to keep fit for work. If the college maintains a canteen, they can be saved from taking impure food from outside.

An ideal college must also provide for an elected Students’ Union, with its members charged with the management of various departments of the extra-academic life. This would enable the college to impart to the students practical training in administration and organization.

No scheme of ideal college would bear any fruit unless the college is blessed with a healthy academic atmosphere. This, again, is to be maintained by the co-operative endeavor of the authorities and the students. No less important also is the existence of a close and cordial relation between the staff and the students. Both inside and outside the class the teacher should be kind and helpful to the students. Similarly, the students, in their turn must be dutiful, obedient and decent in their behavior towards the teachers as also among themselves. The college I contemplate must reflect a disciplined family, governed by mutual respect, helpfulness, and tolerances. It is only in such a free and healthy atmosphere that the creative impulse of the mind of both the student and the teacher may receive proper means of response.In fine, the issue of an ideal college is a controversial one. The standard of ideality? again varies from country to country.

What is an ideal institution in a poor Asian country would fall for short of the standard set for the same in a rich country like the USA While, therefore, formulating my scheme of ideality, I have kept in view that economic condition of our people. Hence I have discarded the idea of any residential institution like the “Viswabharai” in India. In my opinion, such institutions can serve only a few the privileged few who are rich enough to place their sons and daughters in boarding houses. The ideal college which I have outlined above shall be one which will be within the easy reach of all classes of our people. And I feel that the current need of Pakistan is ideal colleges like the one I have contemplated above and these will suffice to turnout? better and more useful citizens of the state.

There is hope from the sea, but none from the grave.

Speech on Debating in College


  • Introduction: age of controversy: supremacy belonging to good debater: mastery over debating comes through training and practice
  • Debating in college: how organized and conducted: interesting features
  • Benefits of college debates
  • Requisites of successful debating in college
  • Conclusion

We live in an age of controversy. Our whole social fabric seems to be bound up by a chain of conflicting views and opinions, each competing for superiority over the rest. Whether in a family gathering a party meeting or in a sitting of the Parliament, so where anything is found to be accepted until its validity has been thoroughly debated upon. And in this whirlpool of conflicts, those who want to hold their own and convert others to their points of view, must of necessity be first-rate debaters, combining arguments with appeals, cogency with eloquence and excelling in smart repartee and good-humored rebuff. But this mastery over what is known as the art of debating is not an entirely innate faculty. It has to be acquired through a process of training and practice. Beyond doubt, the best time for this training is the college life when the mind is in a mood to learn and gather equipment for the life to follow. Hence the supreme necessity of introducing debating as an inalienable’s part of a college education.

Debating is one of the important functions discharged by the College Union. A Secretary, designated as Cultural Secretary or Debating Secretary, is placed in charge of this vital aspect of extra-academic life of the college. The most familiar practice is to organize and conduct debates on Parliamentary lines. After the fashion of the legislature, is notice is issued that a debate will be held on a certain day. The subject matter to be debated upon is set down in the shape of a resolution, couched in parliamentary jargons, such as: “In the opinion of the House, Pakistan should enter into the joint defense with India.” Names of intending speakers, both for and against the motion, are asked to be submitted beforehand. The notice also bears the name of the mover of the motion.

On the specified date students, who are taken to be members of the Parliament, assemble punctually in the venue of debate, usually the common room of the college. The Principal or some Professor takes the seat of the “Speaker” of the House. Speakers of both the sides may occupy their seats to the right and left of the “Speaker”, after the fashion of the Treasury Bench and the Opposition Bench o the legislature. The debate begins when the “Speaker” of the House invites the mover-also called the leader of the motion, to introduce the motion before the House. He does so and is followed by the leader of the opposition. Then other speakers deliver their speeches either for or against the motion. Last of all, the leader of the motion takes the floor again and replies to the points raised by the opposition as well as sums up those placed by his supporters, upon which the debate is closed. The President then puts the motion to vote and declares it either carried or lost. In a Parliamentary system, the President, like the Speaker of the Parliament, is only a symbolic entity. Parliamentary tradition does not permit him to express any view on this or that side. His business is to conduct the proceedings, count the votes and declare the result.

Even though held by young collegians, a Parliamentary system of debate is marked by certain formalities and interesting features. For instance, the speaker cannot address the House or appeal to it directly. He has to begin his speech by saying, Mr. Speaker, Sir and no more. If an appeal to the House etc. The name of another speaker cannot be mentioned If a speaker goes off the track, somebody may rise on a point of order and draw the President’s attention to it. A query has to be made by rising on a point of information. But whatever is sought to be done must have the permission of the “Speaker” of the House.

Many and far-reaching are the benefits of college debating. It stirs up the imagination of the students in general and set them to thinking and discussing as soon as a subject matter is announced. In the debating hall, those who take part in the deliberation find it extremely helpful to the development of their power of expression and reasoning, their ability to bear an attack and offer ready defense, It also creates in them an understanding of the temper of the audience and gradually develop their capacity to handle unsympathetic gatherings-both of which stand them in good stead in future life. Even those who only attend and hear return home with their knowledge enormously enriched and their intelligence definitely sharpened. Some of them also come forward to face the audience the next time. In this way, a few months of regular exercise in debating makes a courageous speaker of a usually timid soul. And to all-speakers and listeners, alike-this rings a splendid evening, resplendent with the sunshine of unbounded delight and laughter, which has a great restorative’ utility after days of the monotonous pursuit of learning.

With a view to reaping the maximum good out of college debates, certain requisitesło are to be fulfilled. Issues selected should be realistic in nature, preferably some burning question of the day, which will make debating of great academic value. Of great importance are the co-operation and guidance of the teachers. They should brief the intending speakers on both sides of the subject matter. Some of them should also take part in the actual deliberation which will both raise its standard and enable the students, particularly new-comers, to learn to debate. Besides, which is necessary for the peaceful conduct of business. Above all, distinguished lawyers and parliamentarians from outside may be invited to take part in college debates.

In fine, college debate in our country has already attained maturity. Every college now holds a number of debates in the course of an academic session. Some college are found to go several steps forward and convene17 sessions of the Parliament or the U.N.O. It offers an interesting sight to watch young students representing national and international celebrities and presenting the views of such persons in their immature languages.

Speech on The College Union


  • Definition: distinction with trade union
  • History of development: present status
  • Composition and election
  • Functions: finance and source of powers
  • Utility and importance of college union: demerits
  • Conclusion

College Union is the name that has come to be given to an elected body of the students of a college, designed to organize them into a compact form with a view to enlisting their effective participation in the administration of the extra-academic affairs of the college. Though the idea seems to have been borrowed from industrial trade unionism and the nomenclature suggests a similarity with a labor union, there is yet a sharp difference between the two. While a trade union exists outside the framework of the industrial organization concerned and functions exclusively to safeguard the interests of its members as against the conflicting interests of the employers, the College Union is a vital part of the college organisation and operates mainly to assist the college authority in the management of the extra-academic activities of the college with a view to securing to its members the maximum benefit of college education. The purposü of the former is to compete with the owners while the aim of the latter is to co-operate with the authorities.

The institution of College Union has developed gradually over half a century. Its history is, in fact, co-extensive with the growth of the modern concept of a college education. At the beginning of western education in our country, the only activity outside the academic curriculum that was open to the students was debating on set subjects. This was aimed at developing the power of speaking in English. With the passage of time, other activities such as sports and theatricals came to be recognized as essential to education. The scope, however, kept widening steadily until in the beginning of the second quarter of this century, a fullfledged cxtra-academic curriculum came to be incorporated into college education, providing for a large variety of physical, cultural and social activities both inside and outside the college premises. The control and particularly the initiative of these activities still rested entirely with the college authoritics. Here and there nominated student-committees, presided over by Professors, were called upon to take part in their management. But with the growth of the consciousness for political selfgovernment outside, students also began to move for the introduction of democracy insidc. What for this and what for the intention of the authorities to be relieved of the additional burden of works, the institution of College Union came to be introduced first as a nominated body and later as an elected organization with defined powers and functions. And today it is impossible to think of a college worth the name which does not provide for the union of the students.

There is no uniform rules guiding the constitution of College Unions and they vary ‘om college to college. Though the cabinet form may be seen here and there, in most of the colleges the union resembles a presidential pattern of government. By tradition, the principal of the college is the ex-officio President of the Union. The remaining office-bearers one vice-president, one General Secretary, and several departmental Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries–are elected by and from among the students in general. In some colleges, at first, a number of class representatives are elected to constitute what may be called the Parliament of the Union, which subsequently elects office-bearers from among its members. The system of voting is by secret ballot in every college. The polling everywhere is preceded by a full-scale election campaign and all formalities that characterize a political election. When the Union is elected, its office-bearers’ and members, if any, are included into office in a swearing-in ceremony. A modern College Union is, in short, the replica of a democratic Government.

During its tenure of office which usually extends over a year, the Union holds the entire charge of conducting18 indoor and outdoor games, organizing sports, debates, social gatherings, 13 theatricals20 and exhibitions maintaining the common room, publishing the college magazine, supervising the college canteen and, in fact, initiating and organising all activities relating to the extra-academic life of the college. From time to time the Union also extends its activities beyond the college campus and steps into the various cultural and social sphere, such as, relief operations, fighting epidemics, exploratory tours and expeditions, o inter-college competitions and so on. The Union is vested with its own funds which is created by realizing Union fee from the students. A regular budget is passed and expenses are made in accordance with its provisions. Within the specified sphere of its jurisdiction, the College Union is autonomous, subject only to the supervision of the Principal of the college. The Union derives its powers and functions from a written constitution, recognized by the college authority whose operation, in part or whole, can be suspended only under emergent circumstances.

The importance of the College Union in any progressive scheme of higher education can never be overestimated. The end of education is to turn out intelligent and useful citizens. To that end, the College Union provides a comfortable ground for training the students in self-help, teamwork, organization and no less in leadership and administration. An election to the Union imparts to every student a valuable practical lesson in the various aspects of democracy and democratic institutions. As many of them will, in a future life, be called upon to shoulder greater responsibilities of similar nature, is essential to make a beginning in the college. If properly organized and guided, the Union can provide a dependable link between the authorities and the students and thus eliminate many roots of conflict which is sometimes found to vitiate the atmosphere of the college.

There is no denying that under this scheme of self-government in college, many students, particularly the office-bearers of the Union, have to spend a lot of their time in extra-academic activities which interferes with their studies and causes distraction in their mind. It is also undeniable” that the system of election generates bitterness and animosity among the rival groups, culminating at times in violence, and tends to create among the student’s spirit of indiscipline, defiances and an unhealthy zest for excitement and truancy. In some cases, the Union has been found to constitute a veritable avenue for the formation of political groups in the college and to champion unnecessary clashes with the college authorities.

These are, however, the darkest aspects of a system which arise mostly out of its misuse. Such limitations are associated with democracy itself. What is, therefore, needed to cure these ills is not to abolish the system of academic democracy but to provide for adequate safeguards against its abuse. To that end, the Principal and the Professors of a college, have a vital role to play. To ensure the healthy working of the College Union, the authorities of the college, particularly the teachers, must vigilantly watch over and guide the activities of the Union without unduly infringing its freedom of action, which will help to keep its office-bearers as also the students in general on the right track. Youthful minds are always susceptible to influence. If it does not come from their teachers, it is no wonder that the vacuum shall be filled up by pernicious influences, whether internal or external.

In conclusion, students should always bear in mind that misuse endangers the very basis of freedom and leads to its suppression. As the College Union is the symbol of academic freedom, it is only by means of running the Union on proper lines that the continued enjoyment of democracy and liberty in the college can be secured.

Our ideas must be as broad as Nature if they are to interpret Nature.

The College Common Room Speech


  • Introduction: inseparable essentials of a college education: a harbor for the fatigued
  • The charm of the common room: the atmosphere of freedom and equality
  • Features of a modern common room
  • Its educative value
  • Demerits of the common room
  • Conclusion

The idea of the common room came to our country from Oxford where it is meant for the follows to retire after dinner. It has now become an inseparable essential of college education everywhere in the world. Every college worth the name must have a common room, large or small, where the students may repair for rest and recreation during their off periods. A modern collegian may well suffer to study under a thatched roof. He may even do without a brilliant staff of teachers. But he can never go without a common room. Its want gives him the pain of suffocation and makes college life appear dull and dreary. A college without a common room is comparable to a sea without a harbor. As the navigators must have a harbor here and there to take rest and refuel his vessel, so the student also must escape into the common room from time to time in order to relax his mind and body and make them fit for further work. The principal charm of the common room lies in its atmosphere of freedom and equality. It is a realm of variety and free choice.

Here the student’s action is guided by his own free will and restrained by his own good sense as also the force of public opinion. Within its four walls, every student is equal in status to every other student. Be it a game, a fun, a discussion or a heated debate, the freshers and the seniors participate in its on a footing of absolute equality. Here, again, the student can breathe freely after hours of confinement and formal behavior in the class-room, the laboratory or the Library. The common room gives him a feeling of maturity and self-importance, which he is denied elsewhere under the eyes of his teachers and superiors. There are the reasons why the attraction of the common room is so irresistible to the students in general.

Various are the features and provisions of a modern common room. As its chief end is to provide relaxation to the fatigued mind and body, the common room makes provision for as many avenues of recreation as the college funds permit. Various indoor games, notably carom and table-tennis, feature prominently and occupy nearly half the hall. While some play on, others hang around, awaiting their turn to come or as sheer on-lookers. Another large slice of the room, generally in the middle, is occupied by a sizeable table, which is littered with newspapers, periodicals, and magazines of different varieties, both local and foreign. A large number of visitors are always clustering around the table. Some glance over the pages listlessly while others read everything with interest and earnestness.

In one corner of the room may be found a radio, catering news, songs, and recitals. On top of all, groups of students scattered all over the hall, both standing and sitting, carry on discussions. Some are talking on sports, some on cinema, others on politics, while some others are dissecting a Professor or even a popular girl. Everything tabled for discussion finds its ready supporters and opponents. True to its tradition of freedom and equality, questions are unhesitatingly asked and ungrudgingly answered; funs are liberally catered and heartily enjoyed; issues are discussed without bar and views are given without reserve, but nothing is allowed to go unchallenged or swallowed. without a grain of salt, be it the opinion of the wisest man of the age. Thus time in the common room, the students’ paradise, glides on. When one group quits attending a class, another follows in the wake, keeping the room always full and lively as long as the college hours continue.

Though essentially meant to provide recreative occupation to the students in their off-periods, the common room is not without educative and other utilities. It cannot be said with certainty that the common room teaches any less than the classroom. It is here that the student reads newspapers and periodicals which keeps him in regular touch with the wide world outside his academic promises. It is again here that thc abstract learning of the class room gains a footing of reality through the frcc exchange of views and informations on many vital aspects of life. No where clse so freely as in the common room can the student open his mind, have his questions answered, problems solved and doubts removed by way of holding discussion with his fellow-students. In short, what the classroom begins may be said to receive perfection in the common room.

There is no denying that the common room has its demerits. The youthful mind has a natural inclination towards amusement and an aversion to the rigours of study. The common room may, therefore, lead to the destruction of many a carcer. But such demerits are associated with every useful institution which cannot be rejected on that account alone. Further students who are too fecble to resist the temptation of the dark side of the common room may well be left out of consideration. Even if the common room docs not exist, such weaklings will find many worse things to lead them astray.

In conclusion, it is a pity that most of our colleges do not lay due emphasis on the maintenance of a standard common room. It arises firstly out of their pecuniary handicaps and secondly from a faulty notion of education. All concerned should remember, in this connexion, the statement of Prof. Roger W. Holmes of Harvard University, that “the most valuable things that happened in college usually happened in our dormitories”. What he attributes to the dormitory, mutatis mutandis, applies to the common room with greater emphasis.

A baby is God’s opinion that life should go on.