Media

Maulana Muhammad Ali Jouhar’s Role in Journalism

Maulana Muhammad Ali Jouhar was born in 1878. His father died when he was only two years old. His mother was a traditional lady, who was called Bi-Amaan. She gave special attention to the education and training of her two sons. Her aim was that her sons should serve Islam when they grew-up.

Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar passed his Matriculation Examination from Bareilly High School. He appeared in the BI Examination in 1876 and got the first position in the university te was well known as the first Indian Secretary of Oxford Universiti He possessed an imposing personality and always were clean and tidy clothes His fiery personality had command over both the languages, Urdu and English.

In 1910 he gave up service and joined journalism and politics. He had written articles in different newspapers before that He issued “Comrade” from Calcutta in 1911.

When the capital was shifted to Delhi, “The Comrade was also shifted to Delhi. He was a staunch Muslim in love all the Muslims throughout the world. In 1912 he was working in an office when Reuter gave the news “The Greek forces are twenty-five miles from Constantinople.

He was deeply depressed by it and was ready to com suicide as he thought his life worthless. He gave up that when his friend made him understand on his point.

The First World War began in 1911 and the British newspaper “The London Times” wrote an editorial under the heading “The Choice of Turks”. In it, hatred was vomited against the Turks When he read it, he took pen in spite of illness and wrote its answer atter sitting for forty hours continuously I was published under the same heading on September 20. 141. It caused unrest in the English House of Lords. This article was confiscated, as well as the security of the Press. The Comrade was closed in November 1914, in view of continuous confliction, Maulana Jauhar and his brother Maulana Shaukat Ali were arrested.

He was the founder of the Khilafat Movement where objectives were that the British Government should step fighting in Turkey. He participated in the London Round Table Conference as a representative of the Muslims. He was seriously ill when he was asked about his illness, he told the British rulers that he had come to get independence “If independence is not given. he will die then and there.” Accordingly, it happened so The demands were not accepted. He died in London. He was buried in Jerusalem according to his will.

Johar’s View about Journalism

When he was in service in Baroda a certain friend suggested that he should bring out a newspaper He wrote a letter in reply which presents the code of ethics for journalism it is as follows:

  1. The newspaper should be beyond personal attacks. Neither should the editor write in praise of a certain person non should he would write against the enemy.
  2. Whatever is written. it should be written with Sobriety and Seriousness.
  3. The objective of a newspaper is not to harm any other nation but to benefit one’s own nation, so far as possible religious discussion should be avoided.
  4. The newspaper is the sum total of news. Therefore, it should mostly have news that is always true and authentic.
  5. The editorial should be written on an important and current affair. It should be written with labour, research and after careful study.

Maulana’s Contribution to Journalism

He started his fouthaltstic Tite W 1910. He fought with the Hindus and the English who were against the Muslims He championed the two-nation theory. He protected the rights of the Muslims within the country and tried his level best for their survival at the international level. He thought that all the Muslims were like flowers in a garden.

The manner of thought of Jauhar and Iqbal was the same. He had not the power of weapons but he rightened the English by the power of his word (pen). Maulana used the First person in his writings, particularly in editorials. Maulana’s editorials were divided by three categories, one was the rise of Islam and complete destruction of heresy (deviation from the right path). The second was the independence of the Sub-Continent of Indo-Pak The third was the welfare of the Muslims He wrote comprehensive editorials on these three subjects. He knew Arabic, Persians. English and Urdu. He mostly used these languages in his writings Whenever he thought proper, he also wrote Quaranic verses, but in a simple and easy language.

The Comrade

The first issue of “The Comrade” was published on January 11, 1911. He brought out this newspaper in a helpless condition There was no type writer or any other employee for “The Comrade”. He did everything himself. But, as soon as this newspaper was published it caused panic in the world of journalism. Many people, who had identical thoughts gathered around him. This was the first Muslim newspaper in English This newspaper raised the dignity of Muslim journalism He convincest the Government that the Muslims also have a command of the English language. At that time, the English and Anglo Indians controlled the newspapers who wrote is support of the Government.

The great Englishmen were surprised when they thought of the language and style of Muhammad Ali Jauhar. He was till: familiar with religious and secular education. This newspaper competed with great English newspapers. The objective of “The Comrade” was to convey the voice and the problems of the masses to the Government. “The Comrade” also published a permanent column under the heading “Gossip”.

Hamdard

Maulana had the following concept in his mind about “Hamdard”.
“I want to bright out a daily of the first rank whose members are Sajjad Haider Yeldram, Maulvi Abdul Haque, Inayat Ullah. Khawaja Ghulam, Sheikh Abdul Qadir, and Mahfooz Ali, but Allama Iqbal should also be its member”

Maulana Jauhar hired the services of Reuter and Associated Press. In addition to this, he also appointed traveling correspondents. This newspaper was started on February 23. 1913 Firstly, it consisted of one of two leaves but it became a complete newspaper of 10 pages in June. Maulana was the first journalist who made prevalent printing by type in daily journalism. Later on, he gave up the type method and adopted the lithotype Maulana issued “The Hamdard” at a time when “The Zamindar” had acquired power and authority in the Sub-Continent. In spite of this the Hamdard was different from “The Zamindar” Contrary 10 “The Zamindar”, it adopted the course of sobriety and argumentative journalism.

The Hamdard is the first Urdu daily which started the Editorial Conference Jauhar wrote articles against the Press to He wrote with great caution when it was necessary to say the truth, he did it fearlessly.

Jauhar gave much attention to the newspaper in the first period but he could not give full attention in the second period On account of a busy life, Jouhar wrote in “The Hamdard” on April 27, 1927, I can make “The Hamdard” interesting with my own pen, but I am awfully busy and cannot spend any time on advice.

The policy of the Hamdard was the same as that of “The Comrade”. This newspaper was closed on April 12. 1929 for lack of money “The Zamindar” introduced popular journalism while “The Hamdard” made quality journalism common.

Maulana Zafar Ali Khan’s Role in Journalism

Every age has its tendencies. The period after the War of independence of 1857 was a period of the dearth of great man Several important personalities were born in that era like Maulana Zafar Ali Khan. He was born at Karamabad (Wazirabad, District Gujranwala). After matriculation, he joined Muslim University, Aligarh. He passed his B.A. Examination in 1894 in the first division. He was appointed Private Secretary to Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk in Bombay. He got a good reputation for his translation of books from another language into Urdu.

There was so much anxiety and confusion in India at that time, that nobody heeded a low voice. A leader like Sir Syed, according to the tendencies of the period, gave a lesson to the Muslims to talk in a low voice. By 1905 the circumstances were so changed that it was useless to talk with the force of logic Now to convey a message to the government with enthusiasm and ardor was needed. In that period the Muslims needed a fiery leader who could convince the government by his forceful speech. Zafar Ali said, “If the Government understands a matter with force, it should talk in the same language”. He created agitation in the land of Punjab with his writings and speeches. He urged the Muslims to come to the battlefield so that their rights might not be usurping. He possessed several qualities. He was the greatest national poet, the most successful militant journalist, the greatest literary figure, the greatest statesman and the best speaker and scholar He is called the father of journalism because he gave to journalism a new terminology.

The Zamindar

Maulvi Siraj-id-Din father of Maulana Zalar issued a Weekly “The Zamindar” from Lahore in 1903 Vulana Zatar Ali Khan was employed in Hyderabad Deccan at that time and he was the editor of “The Deccan Review”. He took the editorship of The Zamindar” after the death of his father in 1909. At that time it was published from Karamabad. Later on, on the advice of his father’s friend Chaudhry Shahab-ud-Din. it was transferred to Lahore on 1911. Its office was situated in a house at Tavali Gate It was turned into a daily newspaper in October, 1911 Maulana became very famous in the field of Journalism. He criticized the government vehemently and consequently and he had to face several difficulties during that period. “The Zamindar” was closed several times. He was released on bail several times. The masses collected the amount for bail 10 reopen “The Zamindar” The article of the Zamindar together with Maulana’s ardent poems and writings 11X only developed the taste for newspaper reading but also made the readers realize the vital importance of unity II became so popular that when “The Zamindar” reached the frontier area, the Pathans bought the newspaper for one Anna and gave one Anna 1o the person who read it out to them. When “The Zamindar” reached Cawnpur, the agent closed his shop so that the people would not snatch the newspaper impatiently. Its daily circulations was thirty thousands which no other newspaper had by 1949. About the role that Maulana Zafar Ali plaved in journalism at that time. Muhammad Ali Johar wrote in “The Conrade” of 2 March 1912 as follows.

“The newspaper reached the climax because its editor was a very capable person. He was a graduate from Aligarh lle had experience of administration int more then one province of India. He knew modern culture and politics. He was very efficient in English He had bright style in Urdu prose. He had a thorough command over the art of Urdu poetry Maulana published the War nens of the First World War The newspaper this closed on that account He was imprisoned at karamabad in 1914. During imprisonment he wrote lo the Punjab Governer General Edwine to allow him to publish a literary magazine After obtaining permission he issued in 1916 “The Sitara-i-Subha” which was purely a literary magazine. It articles were censored hetore publication In a period Maulana wrote against majities in name only and the saints. He exposed their drawbacks. In 1920 he again got the permission to issue “The Zmindar.

The Zamindar played a prominent role in the Khilafat movement Later on worked for the Muslim League. The Maulana died on November 27. 1956.

Maulana’s Journalism and its Characteristics

Maulana spent most of his potentialities and energies in fighting against the slavery of the English His pen was unflinching Michal Edwine wrote about the Maulana in his book “India As I knew It”

“The Zamindar is the spokesman of those people who believe in Pan Islamism Maulana reduced the fear of Government by virtue of masses. Maulana according to the need of the time, was not prudent. He was always ready to fight against his opponents It was personal journalism at that time the masses read the newspapers by virtue to his name That was in the editorials were written with names. Maulana was it man of great will power. That was why he never gave in but his viewpoint was accepted by the masses “The Zamindar? prompted popular journalism The circumstances of the country were mentioned by the ordinary Urdu Newspapers. It was done by “The Zamindar” Maulana wrote in “The Zamindar” in support of the Muslims and against the English when the division of the Bengal was canceled He wrote with great courage and boldness.”

Zafar Ali Khan gave many new things to journalism. He developed political issues and journalistic poetry. The Zamindar was the first newspaper that benefited from the news agencies. It received news from Reuter and, to balance it, extracts were also given from the newspapers of Islamic World. He changed the system of arrangement on the pages of the newspaper. Earlier there was one column headline of the news. He began to write two-column headlines. The headlines were given in great number so that they did facilities the readers. He was a literary figure. Journalist, Poet, and Speaker at the same time All these qualities were present in his journalism.

1. Courage and Boldness

His writings were full of truth and boldness. His writings invited lighting. His pen was like a sword. This sword was mostly used against the English. Whenever he wrote no national atlas, he wrote without using any expedience and with great courage.

2. The use of Poems and Verses

Maulana was not only a journalist and literary figure but also a poet of the highest rank. He gave place to poetry in his prose writings in this way, he made these writing more beautiful.

3. Dignified Language

Maulana was an essayist. Apart from the expression of personal feelings and ideas, language played an important role in the formation of his style. He had command over several languages. His knowledge of language made several additions in journalism He gave to Urdu Journalism new idioms and terminology. We find grand and dignified words in his writing.

4. Emotion and Reason

There was no difference between his literary and journalistic writings Sometimes he wrote a point in a complicated manner. But in most of his writings, he expressed his view with great enthusiasm, emotion and boldness. His writings are a beautiful blend of argumentations and emotions.

5. Comprehensive Thesis

He was a national leader, politician, literary figure and a poet. On whatever topic, he wrote, he wrote in the manner of a comprehensive thesis.

6. Challenges and Attacks

We see more of challenges and attacks on the English in his writing according to his nature. On serious problems he talked less and challenged the opposite group to a fight He regrets their attitudes.

7. Orator

There is a little oratory in his journalism in the beginning. Later on, it became very prominent. As a matter of fact, he was a politician and adopted the same style in speech and writing.

8. Introduction

Maulana introduced a topic before talking on it. He came to the real subject and topic later on.

9. Length Editorial

He wrote lengthy editorials. He introduced reviews (criticism) with a literary touch in his editorials. He drew a new map of the editorial page. He started his writings in the Arabic language and then tried Persian. He used Arabic and Persian words in Urdu. His language was thought authentic at that time.

10. His Editorial Writing

He made editorial effective and impressive. Nowadays editorial is written on different topics. The editorials are mostly base on newspapers. The problems of that period were limited and they were written on till the problems were solid Maulana’s editorial was mostly about Islam and the Muslim te was himself a literary figure and thoroughly knew the problems in which the masses were interested, Therefore, whatever he wrote had the interest of the masses. He was a great personality and his writings are oratorical.

In his editorial, there was less detail of events but it expressed, in a better way, the emotions of the masses At that time the editorials were By-lived. The name of the editorial writer and written at the top. Since he was mostly in prison when the masses saw the name of Zafar Ali Khan at the top of the editorial, they said it was written by their leader. The editorials of that lime were not brief like those of today, but lengthy Thus were printed in several installments.

His editorials were more impressive than the editorials of other newspapers because he had command over the language le also had held a high position in prose Sometimes there were editorials and reviews in the form of poems.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s Role in Journalism

The conditions of the Muslim had become very miserable after the failure of the War of Independence in 1857 Misunderstanding had increased by the conflict of the two civilizations. The English were afraid of the Muslim and the Muslim Rated the English. The English wanted to wipe out the power of the Muslims so that they might not perturb them Under the circumstances they needed a time server, a sincere and steadfast person who could make them aware of the needs of the time and who should be able to change the condition of the Muslims according to the new situation.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan took the responsibility of this task. He thought, first of all, the innocence of Muslim should be proved to the English. Because English were suspicious of the Muslim The English should be made aware of their wrong policies. So that, he wrote a treatise “The causes of the Indian Mutiny”.

He proved that not only the Muslims but the Hindus also participated in it. He also explained to the English that the Muslims despised the English because they had already been the rulers With the deprival of the Government, they were also deprived of kind of facilities. Sir Syed wanted that the Muslim should be aware of the modern sciences. He drew the attention of the Muslims every field, but most of all he concentrated on modern science. For this purpose, he laid the foundation of the Scientific Society in 1864.

The Scientific Society Newspaper

The newspaper “The Scientific Society’ was issued from Aligarh on March 3, 1866 and continued even after the death or Sii Syed. It began as a weekly newspaper and was later converted into a biweekly newspaper. The specialty of this newspaper was that it printed one column in Urdu and the other column in English, which was the version of the Urdu Column Some essays were printed separately in Urdu and English. In the beginning, Sir Syed wrote political essays in it, so that the government could know the feelings of the masses and political interest could be created among the massed. Maulana Hali in his book “HAYAT-I-JAVED” writes that this newspaper included social, moral and political essays Articles translated from English newspapers were also printed in it Sir Syed himself was the Editor of this newspaper He never convened his contemporaries by it. Seriousness and soberly were its main qualities, otherwise, in that period the most serious topics were dealt with in a humorous manner. The language was very simple. He used English words with Urdu words in abundance This newspaper never vomited venom against foreign nations. It criticized the government moderately It also maintained its freedom. This newspaper was free from illogical episodes News was taken from the most reliable sources I was so regularly published that it continued for 33 years.

Sir Syed impressed the people very much with his writing which were simple and straight forward. The attitude was that of a friend. He drew the attention of the people by his arguments The . language was very polite. He wrote such essays as reformed the morals of the people. There was no tradition of writing editorials Sir Syed emphasized it. He removed in any drawbacks of journalism. He raised the standard of the newspapers. He wrote the editorial himself and criticized government policies without fear.

The Tahzib-i-Akhlaq

The “Scientific Society” was a political, moral and Solat neu paper. It was not only for the Muslims but also for all into Indian The movement that Sir Syed started was especially for the Muslims He thought that it was very necessary for the view poin the nation to be cast in the new political mold They should be freed from the chains of slavery and given a lesson on freedom. For this purpose, he issued the magazine “The Tahzib-i-Akhlaq”. The magazine printed articles whose main objective was to change the viewpoint of the nation. The first issue was published on December 24, 1890. The English name was “The Muhammadan Social Reformer” li was printed in the Urdu language only It had twelve pages and each page had two columns. The whole subject matter was printed on a very fine paper Generally it was printed thrice a month in the first edition Sir Sved wrote under the heading “Its objective is to persuade the Indian Muslim to adopt! the highly polished civilization so that they might be counted sophisticated among the respectable nations of the world. He emphasized that religion and society were supreme and dominate above everything for the Muslim He also wanted that religion tested on the touchstone, At last, this magazine was closed atter continuing for six years and seven months.

The Effects of “The Tahzib-i-Akhlaq”

Maulana Hali noted down comprehensive details in this respect but briefly is as under:

  • Sir Syed supported the stunting ship of the Muslim
  • Islamic schools were established in every corner of the country
  • The English language was used by the people
  • The Muslin came to know about the achievements of their forefathers and created a spirit for development among them
  • The doubts and suspicions created by the writings Europeans writers were removed.
  • The prejudices of the Muslims decreased. They developed the spirit of depending on their own sources
  • It created a sense of Islamic nationality among the Muslim
  • It brought about a revolution in Urdu literature and its poetry took a new direction
  • The articles were written on religion and religious problems were discussed in a simple and easy language
  • It resulted in the establishment of the Muhammiklar

College at Aligarh Sir Syed’s Contribution

According to Khalida Adeeba Khanum

“If we look at Sir Syed from any angle, he was universal. He was like a stone in the stagnant water of India. Sir Syed told the Muslims that they could not win their fighting against the English rather they would ruin. They should level the path to recognizing them in every field to protect their existence.”

A Revolution in Urdu Literature

Sir Syed brought about a great revolutions in Urdu literature by virtue of his forceful writings He used simple language to make the people understand his arguments His movement was very influential. Sir Syed fully understood the attitude of Hindus in 1857. He directed literature towards lite to arise the Muslims from the state of disappointment and frustration He tried no change the life of the Muslims by virtue of literature and succeeded in it. His medium of expression was simple rather than rhythmical. He chose topics based on rationalism. He began to write on modern innovations and morals.

He made the Muslims Conscious of Their Life

The Muslims were made conscious of their life by Sir Syed and the magazines published by him The Muslims were greatly disappointed after the failure of the Independence War in 1857 They avoided education. They did not like the slavery of the English. He exhorted the Muslims to mangle with the English so that they might enjoy a status in society. In addition to this, he waged upon them to study modern sciences.

Two Nation Ilicory

When Sir Syed became aware of the designs of the Congress, then he made it clear that Muslims are a separate nation. Their religion is very powerful. They should demand a separate homeland of their own.

Introduction of Urdu Political Journalism

There was no political journalism before Sir Syed The local newspapers were strictly banned. The newspapers of that lime gave information about the ruler and the changes in climate Sir Syed was the first journalist who brought politics into his newspapers He criticized the government in an impressive way.

The Beginning of Editorial Writing

In the sub-continued of India and Pakistan, there was no such thing as editorial. Sir Syed added to the newspaper the editorial page. He expressed his opinion on political problems in it and also discriminated between right and wrong.

Raised the status of Journalism

Before Sir Syed, the newspapers gave information about the supers. He raised the status of Journalism. The other newspapers were translated into Urdu from English newspapers and, therefore, there was no continuity. He gave news from reliable sources and only wrote important things in the newspaper. He used a very simple and easily intelligible language. He thought it was his duty to give moral training to the Indian masses The other newspapers followed Sir Syed’s Journalism acquired a sound and strong status and the newspaper began to receive attention in government circles.

He Added Sobriety Seriormess to Journalism

The English to Urdugnt journalism India The people of India adopted the same style as was adopted by English newspapers. Everything was written in a playful and humorous manner. Sir Syed was the first man who gave to the writing of the newspaper sobriety and seriousness.

Function of the Press in an Islamic State

To inform, to educate and to entertain the people with religious spirit and devotion, is the basic function of the press in an Islamic state. The Islamic concept of the press provides all possible liberties within the domain of the given principles of an Islamic state.

Specifically, the domain of Islamic Democracy is the activity area of an Islamic press, there must be some limitations of one sort or another if the society is to function at all.

Islam teaches freedom, cherishes il. and guaranteed it for the Muslim as well as for the non-Muslim. The QURANIC’ concept of freedom applies to all voluntary activities of journalism Every press maintains entitled to exercise his freedom of man is conscience in the words of the Quran God says.

Let there be no compulsion in religion. Truth stands out clear from error. Whosever reflects evil and believes in God has grasped the strongest bond that never breaks And God knows and hears all things (Quran 2:256).

The Islamic concept of freedom is an article of faith a solemn command from the supreme creator. Within the framework of this Islamic concept of freedom, there is no room for religious persecution, class conflict or racial prejudice. In this framework of the Islamic concept of freedom, some taboos have been placed on the press. These are the same or almost the same as placed in the most advanced parts of the world. In other words, it converts a free press into a free responsible press in which a journalist’s conscience is subject to God only to whom every pressman is directly responsible.

The law of the Islamic society taboos publication of matter tending to undermine the security of the Islamic state or solidarity of the nation loyally and allegiance of any member of the Islamic armed forces.

A Muslim journalist should not be satisfied money by putting into print all that is fit to print in the common man’s interest; he should always attack wrong and fight for right against might. The Islamic press should reflect the spirit of the following verses of the QURAN Who invite to goodness, and enjoin right conduct and forbid indecency. (AII – IMRIN – 3:104 QURAN)

To promote goodness the Quran enunciates Help ye but one another unto righteousness and pious duty Help not one another unto sin and transgression but keep your duty to Allah. (QURAN AI-MAIDAH – 5:2)

The Islamic Concept of Mass Media

The Islamic concept of Mass Media is not man-made. Therefore, it cannot be compared with other man-made concepts of Mass Media, which in fact are temporary It is impossible to encompass the Islamic concept by any man-made theory. Every concept whether it is Authoritarian, the libertarian or communist concept has certain drawbacks. And, also, as far as the freedom of the mass media in these societies is concerned, no society provides complete liberty. Every society imposes restrictions Our basic assumption appears to be common to all theories of the press, whether it is the theory of Tudors, or of the 18″ century as stated by Blackstone and Mansfield This assumption is, that freedom of the press is not and never can be absolute. All agree that some forms of restraint are necessary and that the government has a legitimate function as to the nature and number of these limitations.

In order to get the concept of media or freedom conditions or press in an Islamic state or society, various principles of Islamic state need clarification which deals with freedom, rights, and duties of individuals or groups in an Islamic society. There are:

  1. The constitution of the Islamic state shall guarantee Civil Liberties to all subjects. Non-Muslim religious minorities shall enjoy the right to decide their cases according to their own legal system (4:236).
  2. Only men of character and integrity shall be competent to make laws for the state after natural consultation based on the interpretation of the QURAN, the SUNNAH, and the views and pronouncements of learned and well known Muslims in the present and the past.
  3. Every deed of the Muslim individual or group of the individual must be inspired and guided by the law of God (2:130).
  4. Although the ruler is appointed by the people his first Responsibility is to God, then to the people. He has a dual responsibility; on one hand, he is accountable to God for his conduct and on the other, he is responsible to the people who have put their trust in him (2:134).
  5. Every citizen is enjoyed to offer his best advice on common matters and must be entitled to do so.
  6. In this way every citizen has an obligation, in one capacity or another, to fulfill and is deeply concerned directly or otherwise with the conduct of public affairs.
  7. Under the Islamic system, every citizen is entitled to enjoy the freedom of belief and conscience and freedom of thought and expression.

But his freedom is not, and cannot be, absolute, or else it amounts to chaos and anarchy (2:135). The Islamic State is unique in its structure, its function, and its purpose; consequently, the Islamic concept of press freedom has also to be a unique one. It is not pragmatic or instrumentalist

World’s Press Systems in Mass Media

At least four different press systems exist whose types envolved form, and are in large measure dependent upon. the philosophies of governments now controlling the destinies of various world powers. There is another press system, Islamic press system, complete and comprehensive press system. but not exist in any part of the world, in real shape.

The press in each country varies from that of other nations States in some measure because of the difference in cultural and political growth patterns, but in general, the various press systems, or types of journalistic control, may be classified as, Authoritarian, Free Press (libertarian). Communist Press System and SRT The detail of each are as follows.

Authoritarian Press Site

This ‘patent’ system existed for about 200 years in England. Then in the 17th century, the system began 10 collapses because of the success of the competing private press.

Absolute control by the government of every branch of journalism similarly characterizes the press of other types of dictator states. In fascist totalitarian states symbolized by Hitler’s Germany and various quasi-fascist states today, the press is regarded as a semi-official arm of the all-powerful state opinion. In this sense, it is not an agency of private initiative, but of the government.

The fascist press has been characterized by a strict organization which extends from the individual journalist through a hierarchy of official agencies to the leader, or dictator, at the top The journalist has to meet certain qualifications as to race, creed and competency. Generally, he has to be enrolled in a government registry which issues him a licensee or permits 10 practice journalism. Further and of special import, he is always a member of the district association, which is a unit of the national body. This national association is a branch of the press chamber in the ministry, which is Germany was called the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. The minister is responsible only to the leader regardless of the title used.

Today the authoritarian system of the press is still in operation in many parts of the world. In communist countries, in nations under dictatorial control, and in some third world countries, a free press is little more than theory without practice.

1. Free Press System

A free press is simply the recognized and protected right together and disseminate news according to the fact, and views according to conviction, provide neither libel nor scurrility is involved. Liberty to print all the news that is fit to print is its chief characteristics.

The libertarian system is the absolute opposite of the Authoritarian and developed slowly in the 16th century. John Milton, Thomas Jefferson, John Stuart Mill and Erskine were its founders. According to Milton, people should have unlimited access to the ideas and thoughts of other men. Erskine argued that people seek to enlighten others.

John Stuart Mill says: People had the right to think and eat as they please if they did not infringe on the rights of others.

According to Jefferson: The press was the instrument to inform the people and therefore, had to be free of control. Under a free press system, few controls can be applied by the government to cure abuses. In England and the United States, the high level of professional self-censorship is aided frequently by public opinion and professional critics of the press.

The concept of freedom of the press has evolved 10 mean an absence of definite restrictions. A government license or permit to publish a newspaper was employed in early England 10 suppress opposition to the government Only friendly newspapers were licensed. Today attempts to enforce a government license upon the press in England or the United States would be and has been recognized and fought as an infringement upon the liberty of the press. “Previous censorship”, by which is meant the requirement that matter intended for publication be submitted to a government censor for approval before being published, was once enforced in England. Such censorship in England or America is totally an unconstitutional restriction upon the freedom of the press except in time of war.

According to this system. press freedom means, that no court or administrative order may be placed against a newspaper to prevent publication of information or opinions even though such publication would be libelous or seditious. Today it also means freedom from arbitrary and excessive taxation aimed to control or injure the press.

Freedom of the press means the freedom to criticize the government, its officials in their conduct of government and all other persons and organization whose activities affect the public welfare.

2. Communist Press System

This system is one of absolute government control, theoretically in the interest of the proletariat, which in Soviet Russia means solely in the interests of the communist system.

According to widely propagandized communist doctrine. the Russian press is worker-owned and controlled. Private ownership of newspapers does not exist. In its place is a system of co-operative ownership. Wilbur Schramm explains that mass communication in the soviet communist theory is an instrument of the state. The two large Soviet newspapers, Pravda and Izvestiya, are the best examples.

Broadcasting under the Soviet communist theory liker is designed not so much to serve the public but for Programming is again an instrument of the state and the medium is important to it because of the large numbers of people that broadcasting can reach.

Today, the Russian press is for all practical purposes the carefully guarded property of the Soviet Politburo. Thus, through the control of the government and the communist party, both effectively led by Khrushchev the press of Russia is thoroughly regimented to report news and opinions without important deviation from whatever may be the current Kremlin policy interpretation. Thus, most news and all opinions are colored and slanted.

The basic characteristic of the communist press is that it is devoted to the mass indoctrination of the population This Indoctrination is called education. To an extent, it is the dissemination of knowledge and techniques, but more often the instruction is not education but communistic indoctrination carried on in a steady, ordered, and repetitive fashion on a gigantic all-inclusive scale.

The communist press system differs in control but little from the fascist system. All of the controls employed by Nazi Germany under Hitler and Fascist Italy under Mussolini are in force in Soviet Russia and her satellite states today The one difference is that Russia applies previous censorship to what is intended for publication whereas the fascists developed an efficient method of post censorship.

The communist press dedicated to mass education in the communist philosophy has no place for sensationalism, triviality, or venality. On the other hand, it follows a policy of propaganda and falsehood concerning all opposition creeds and parties. And to say that the Russian press is filled with distortions of affairs in capitalistic countries is a gross understatement.

Comparison with Free System and Communist System

The first essential difference between the authoritarian and the free press system is that the fascist journalist is compelled by the government to serve the public welfare according to the principles of his government, while the American journalist is free to serve the public according to democratic and constitutional principles without compulsion except that of his conscience, his profession, and his public. The American journalist is free to commit antisocial acts like coloring, suppression, sensationalism and even propagandizing in the new without punishment except that which may come from his subscribers. The fascist journalist is prevented from committing certain antisocial acts, like sensationalism, trial by newspaper and triviality. But the fascist journalist is compelled to publish news that is colored and propagandized and to suppose information in the interest of the controlling philosophy of government acts which free press advocates would define as antisocial because they alter the truth The second essential difference is that a fascist press is compelled frequently to mutilate the news, whereas the American press is given the choice of conducting itself uprightly or not.

Another fundamental difference lies in the degree of trust in the press. Fascism distrusts the press. Therefore, the press is deprived of responsibility.

Enforced loyalty to a dominate party is required by both the fascist and the communist press system. In a practical sense, there is no difference. However, the Soviet press is spoken of as a workers press, designed to serve the welfare of masses, while the fascist press is referred to as a state press, intended to serve the fascist state first, and to serve the masses of the people second And yet, the fascist system permits private ownership, stringently regulated, whereas the communist press is entirely publicly owned either by worker association, divisions of the communist party, or by the government as such.

3. Semi free System or SRT

In the atmosphere of the industrial revolution and a multimedia society there developed a theory of a free but responsible press li held that a press has the right to criticize government and institutions but also has certain basic responsibilities to maintain the stability of society.

The semi-free exemplified, among many other places in South America, Turkey, and Greece, affords only sporadically the benefits of freedom of the press in good times, press liberty may be unrestricted. But in times of crises, when the people need vial information, the government may deny it to them by abolishing or effectively curtailing press freedom. The considerable value, of course, lies in the fact that the people know what liberty of the press means. Resistance to its suspension or abolition will almost certainly evolve especially where democracy becomes better rooted or public opinion more effective.

The Media and Social Change

During the immense changes in the social structure of the past quarter-century, the media have been the instruments through which the promoters of change have advocates, as the campaign in progress.

In general, the media science than have done an adequate and occasionally excellent job in identifying and reporting social tends, Changing relationships between men and women, both in the workplace and in personal life, the problems of racial inequality, alienation of young people and their rejection of traditional living patterns, the increase in violence and growth of the drug culture all of these have been examined in broadcast book, magazine, articles, news stories, and films.

The media are an integral part of society, not an unrelated force, and their treatment of social change is influenced and constructed by other portions of the social fabric. Social change often does not come easily, and, as the messengers of society, the media must suffer the business of conflict.

The media as a whole are concerned in a news sense with reporting and interpreting society’s conduct, in an entertainment sense with presenting material that will earn a profit because it pleases audiences, and in a commercial sense with marketing goods and services through advertising at a profit themselves.

The Media and the Economy

Advertising makes a free economy function by telling potential purchasers what is available and explaining the advantages of buying. As the machinery through which advertising messages are derived, the media play a crucial role. Without the media to present these messages business would stagnate.

The principal media for advertising are television, radio, newspapers, and magazines. Neither books nor entertainment motion pictures carry advertising, except for occasional times of a self-promotional nature.

Advertising on television and in magazines usually introduces and describes products while the majority of newspaper and radio advertising is designed to make the cash register ring by listing prices and detailed information about purchasing The media also derive news about the economy, to enlarge people’s general knowledge and to guide them in their personal finances. Newspapers publish a stock market price list and other statistical tables. The newspapers with the largest daily circulation in the United States is the Wall Street Journal Financial magazines such as Barron’s Forbes and Fortune probe business trends, as do programs such as Louis Rukeyser’s wall “Street Week” on television.

In the business community, a popularly held misconception is that the news media are out to “get” corporations Many corporate executive regards reported as antagonistic and ill-informed individuals who try to tear down the business structure.

The Media and Politics

According to Thomas Jefferson the role of the press in a democracy. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I shall not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.

In the democratic process, the media perform a two way function Political leaders use media channels to explain their actions and promote their causes. Simulataneously, they study the media to determine what voters think, what they desire, and how a mesh of political goals and voter attitude can be achieved.

The influence of the mass media on the political process is strong and easily discernible. Politicians maneuver to obtain 30-second interview “bites” on the evening TV news shows. Election campaigns are fought with 30 second TV commercials designed to project a calculated image of the candidate rather than the discussion of an issue. And two decade after the Vietnam War, pictures such as the uncompressing platoon remind us of war’s horrors and the American political failures of that struggle.

Democracy flourishes only when a free flow of information about the operation of government reaches the people. That is accomplished primarily through the media Daily news stories report spot, development while magazine articles, book and discussion groups in the electronic media examine trends and background influences at greater depth.

Recent emergence of the TV commercial as a principal campaign tool disturb many student of politics. The method is so enormously expensive that some candidates appear to spend more time raising money to buy a television time that they do in meeting voters. What TV watchers see is not the candidate in person but a shrewd advertising specialist’s image of the candidate. It is ironical that at a time when the tools of communication for exceeding those of the past, the live interplay of personality and ideas between candidates and voters has shriveled.

Effective Role of Media in Society

The press plays a very important role in the modern age In spite of the impact of television news coverage on the public, newspapers still continue to serve as the basic news medium for a majority of the population Although newspapers lack the speed and visual quality of television news yet they provide greater depth and variety in reporting People today depend greatly on the press for local national, international news. They cannot be kept well informed about them in the absence of newspapers. A newspaper reader can obtain a lot information regarding local, national and international affairs from a single issues of a newspaper. A newspaper caters for the needs of different readers by publishing various types of news such as political, economic, social, scientific, developmental etc.

The true role of media thus should be projecting the inner feelings of the people which guarantees them lasting happiness of both the worlds. The role of the media is not just to project the developmental activities of a particular area but offer a comprehensive picture, encompassing all aspects of life that is moral, spiritual and material.

It should seek to establish a link between old and present heritage and highlight accomplishments and deficiencies of nations.

The media should be accountable to the society which sustains it through its patronage. In our society, a third world developing ideological state, the media has a multiple and a crucial role to play. It simply cannot afford the luxury of the anarchic freedom of the western media and at no cost should permit itself to be gagged completely. In its constructive positive role it has to reflect the public mood and sentiments.

In the broadcast media considerations other than public service may also determine decisions. Most of the news on radio and television is too brief to provide the information the public needs. Often, particularly in time of crisis or disaster, the rush to get on the air leads to the dissemination of sketchy or inaccurate information, and in the hotly competitive broadcast industries a scramble of rating in the Jamming up of newscasts and over emphasis on dramatic development.

We are heavily dependent on the media for these glimpses of what is happening outside our immediate neighborhood. We flick on the radio each morning for news of what happened while we slept, we search the newspapers and news magazines for reports of new medical cures or economic survival tactics. We watch a television documentary for insight into social systems different from our own. Without these views through the windows of the media we would be cut of, wondering and fearful in a world full meaning unknowns.

The media of mass communication also serve as socializing agencies, partly through the news they convey and parily through the other information they disseminate. We learn, practically from television, about developing facts, about modification in manners and morals.

In reality, the media form a part of society just as mosques schools, and minority groups do. While the media unquestionably do influence society thinking and behaviour, their own conduct is turned or shaped by the standards and structures of other social elements. The media do not stand alone, although their high visibility focuses attention on them.