Grammer

How to write a story (4 Steps)

A story consists of these four distinct parts:

1: Beginning

The beginning should be direct and the story should be begun in the very first line. The writer should never introduce himself or the story so as to clarify particular things that are to be told later on. This destroys a semblance of reality in the story. in the beginning of the story the writer should introduce to the reader the different characters that take part in it. He should also show the trend of the story and point out the problem that the story is going to tackle or the incidents that are going to occur.

Short Paragraph on Drug Addiction with Quotations

So that, after having read the beginning of the story, the reader should be in possession of sufficient material to be able to appreciate all that comes later on. He should also have Some idea of the things that are going to happen in the course of the story. The students should always remember that if the beginning of a short-story is dull, the reader will not read further than that, so he should make it very interesting.

2: Main body

In the main body the trends shown by the story in the very beginning are further developed, so that different elements that are going to contribute to the climax may develop. In the body of the story the writer has to see to it that all conflicting forces that have to help in the final solution of the problem that the characters are facing may develop side by side, and the reader should have a slight inkling of the attitude of the writer about things to come.

Read also: An Introduction to Letter Writing for Beginners

3: Climax

This is the most interesting part of the story. It brings about the last conflict between different forces or personalities of the story. Here all the characters who are opposed to each other, meet. The writer should try to make the climax a determining factor in the story. There should be a slight element of surprise in it. But he should be careful to keep this surprise within the limitations imposed by the rules of probability.

4: Ending

Very often the end of the story and the climax come together. This gives a sharpness to the story which increases its charm. But if that is not considered desirable, the student should come to the end of the story at the earliest after the climax. Any further dragging of the story is not considered desirable. The student should use this part of the story to finally settle the questions that have been decided in principle by the resolution of the conflict in the climax. Thus there may be a hint about reward or punishment that the characters receive or there may be some slight indication of the things that writer expects would happen in the days to come. But it should not be enlarged upon in any case.

By following these simple steps you can write an amazing story that can be ideal for every reader of you.

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How to Become a Good Essayist

The word ‘Essay’ is derived from the old French word essai meaning attempt. An essay is an attempt at writing something about or on something. Montaigne, the famous French essayist, is said to have originated the style of writing. He wrote many compositions which were translated into English about the time Shakespeare was writing his greatest plays. They have had very great influence on other writers from that time. Shakespeare read them, as we can often see in the thoughts he puts into the mouths of his characters. And they were also responsible for the first great essay, we have in English-those of Francis Bacon(1566-1626), which are considerably shorter than Montaigne’s, sometimes only of one page.

These essays of Montaigne and Bacon are mainly meditations or reflections arranged in orderly ways. Since their time, the name ‘essay’ has been given to writings of very varying length, from a page or two to long ones like those of Macaulay and others. Nowadays ‘essays are generally short because they are written to fill a limited amount of space in a daily, weekly, monthly or a quarterly publication.

According to the Oxford Concise Dictionary, an essay is “a literary composition on any subject, usually in prose, and short.” Thus essay is the grouping together and presentation of ideas. The musician translates his thoughts into music; the painter uses his brushes and colors; the writer and the speaker must make use of language, both written and spoken, in order to give to others an idea of his thoughts.

Therefore, it follows that, just as there are many types of musical composition-operas, songs, and orchestral pieces also different kinds of pictures, viz. oil paintings, watercolors, landscapes, and miniatures so there must be many different forms of writing, dependent entirely upon the idea it is desired to convey and the impression to be made. Whatever may be the form of expression adopted, it must possess certain essential qualities.

  • What is written must be perfectly clear; there must be no doubt in the doubt in the mind of the reader as to the meaning.
  • It must be expressed in an attractive way; the language should fit in with the ideas: beautiful thoughts must be clothed in beautiful words.
  • There ought to be a logical sequence in what is written; one idea should lead quite naturally to another.
  • It is essential to keep to the topic about which it is intended to write. This is especially important in an essay for examination purposes. A composition on Cricket will be treated quite differently from an exercise on The Advantages of Cricket.
  • Care should be taken with the setting out of the composition: the exercise must be a series of thoughts about the subject in question. Each distinct line of thought should be indicated by a paragraph. Let there be a margin of the left-hand side of the paper and each paragraph he denoted by an indent.

The writing of an essay in English is one of the most difficult tasks a Pakistani student has to undertake. Our problem is how to translate our thoughts and feelings into correct and living English. Mostly, the students complain that they have no material for a topic or the other. Some are shy, while others approach their teachers for guidance. The only guidance that a teacher can give his student is that he should:

1. Search

From search, we mean that a research attitude should be developed in the students. The teacher can make use of the college library for this purpose. It has been observed that most of the students don’t get books from the college library because they don’t know how to consult the card files in the library. It is recommended that guidance programmes may be started in colleges for this purpose. The business of such programmes will be to assist the students to make a right choice of books they need and how to find them. In short, a student must always be prepared to hunt his material wherever he can lay his hand upon.

2. Read

Reading is the most important requisite for writing. Reading will give you the material. But one has to make a healthy selection in reading for some hooks are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few of he chewed and digested.

3. Think

There is a saying, One may lead a horse to water, but twenty cannot make him drink. This means a teacher cannot ask a boy to think. It is just a personal experience which cannot be forced on the students. The power of thinking can be cultivated and then developed through questions as suggested by Socrates.

4. Practice Writing

If you wish to write good English, reading is not enough you must practice. Do write something every day, even if it is just a paragraph. But write as well as you can so that you may be able to improve upon what only yesterday you regarded as your best.

Structural Principles of Essay

A sentence is a complete thought expressed in words. A paragraph is a collection of sentences. An essay is a collection of paragraphs. These three products, the sentence, the paragraph, and the essay, however much they differ, ought to have one factor in common is unity.

1. Relevancy

The student, before he begins to write, must note carefully the wording of the subject set, and convince himself that he has understood its scope, making it neither too narrow nor too broad, nor allowing his thought to wander away from the point.

2. proportion

The student must realize the relative importance of the different points of the essay and allot spaces to them accordingly. Each topic must have its appropriate space. Trifling :. matters, if at all introduced in the essay, should never occupy a large space. Important and weighty ideas, on the other hand, should occupy a prominent position and receive a duly elaborate treatment.

3. Arrangement

The paragraphs should be so arranged that, when the reader has gone through one paragraph, his mind will be carried forward by an easy, transition to the next one. The ideas must succeed in an that coherence of the whole essay may be secured. A proper logical order in setting forth the ideas can be ensured only by the use of an outline,

In drawing up an outline, the following general rules should be observed.

  • First set down the principal ideas that suggest themselves and denote them by numbers, 1,2,3, etc. These are the main topics.
  • Next set down under each main topic the subordinate ideas that follow from them. These are the sub-topics and denote them by letters (a). (h). (c), etc.
  • Arrange both your main topics and sub-topics in their natural order.
  • See that ideas contained in the sub-topics are in keeping with the ideas contained in the main topics.
  • Word all your topics as briefly and compactly as possible.

Classification of Essays

Essays may be divided roughly into four classes:

1. Narrative Essays

Narrative essays are those that consist of the narration of some event. Such events may consist of the narration of some event. Such events may be

  • Historical or legendary occurrences
  • Stories either true or imaginary
  • Biographical sketches of well-known personalities.

2. Descriptive Essays

Descriptive essays are those that consist of the description of some place or thing. These may be in

  • Countries, island, mountains, seasons, rivers
  • Aspects and phenomena of Nature
  • Towns and buildings

3. Reflective Essays

Reflective essays consist of reflections upon some topic, which is generally of an abstract nature. These may be

  • Qualities, habits, etc
  • Social. political, and domestic affairs.

4. Expositor or Argumentative Essays

These consist of the exposition of a saying, or a thesis, as,

  • A stitch in time saves nine
  • Honesty is the best policy

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How to Write an Essay, its Types and Key Points

Essay writing is a skill which is most needed by us, and perhaps, which is most better by us. In essay writing, the views, opinions and facts are structured in a systematic and formal way.

There are three main types of an essay which the students can array:

  • Descriptive essays which describe a person, place or event.
  • Narrative essays which describe a story have a beginning, middle, and end.
  • Reflective essays which critically analyze a certain point of view.

Selecting the Topic

Select the topic for your essay which interests you most. Select neither a too difficult topic nor a too easy one. If you can write a humorous essay only then touch a humorous topic: otherwise select some other which is of your liking.

Thinking and collection of material

Having selected a topic think on it for a few minutes. Explore the depth of your mind and bring out all relevant material. Do not think that this time is being wasted. It is, on the other hand, the best use that the time reserved for the essay can be put to. Jot down on a piece of paper all the ideas or points that come to your mind.

Selection of ideas of relevant points

If your have too many ideas the need for selection of the important and more necessary will arise. For example, if the topic is ‘War’ you may be confused as to which aspect of it should be described whether to give a description of wars, the horror of wars, the history of wars, the desire to wage to was or the measures to put an end to it. In such a case select the points which seem significant and can serve your purpose.

Arrangement

Thoughts may rush. into your mind but it will be a disorderly rabble entering the portals of your mind. It will not be a disciplined army, the sight of which will impress the spectator. So, your disordered thoughts need to be properly arranged. See which should be given the first place, which the ‘second and so on. Pruning and planning will invest the same material with greater charm; order and arrangement will make it look a chiseled product with proper finish.

Beginning

It is said that well begun is half done and this is very true in the case of essays. To create a good impression on the reader or the examiner make your first paragraph, nay the very first sentence, arresting. The first paragraph should be a general one. The essay can begin with a quotation, with a story, with a humorous or profound remark or even in an abrupt manner.

Middle

Divide the essay into a number of paragraphs. Do not mix up differing ideas in one paragraph. Let it contain just one idea or similar ideas. The body of the essay should have certain qualities. There should be unity. i.e., only one subject should be discussed. The irrelevant matter should be excluded. Do not begin an essay till you have. thoroughly understood its scope, e.g., on the essay, ‘A Cinema Depicting a Literary Subject, you are not to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the Cinema or its general effect upon man for it is beyond the scope of the topic.

There should be coherence in the essay and the ideas should have a logical connection. Arrange your thoughts properly and then present them in a logical manner. The ideas should not be disjointed or jumbled up.

The proper proportion should be observed between the various parts of the essay, i.e., present the different ideas in a balanced manner. The introduction conclusion.or one paragraph describing- one idea should not be disproportionately long. Do not waste too many words in the introduction so that when you are going to begin the discussion of the topic the time for the essay has finished.

Conclusion

Just as an introductory paragraph is needed, a concluding paragraph is also very important. A good ending will give the finish to the essay and will not let it look incomplete.

The conclusion should be short and natural; the ending should not be abrupt. It may contain some striking sentences, or sum up the ideas given in the body of the essay and give the writer’s point of view about the topic under discussion. The conclusion should leave a good lasting impression upon the examiner.

Points to Remember

  • Understand the topic fully
  • Think about it and collect as much material as possible
  • Write down all the points.
  • Select the points that your would like to incorporate in the essay.
  • Arrange your points in a proper order.
  • Give a brief but good introduction. Let the first sentence be striking.
  • Different ideas should be developed in different paragraphs.
  • The body of the essay should have unity and coherence. The ideas should follow a logical plan.
  • Add a concluding paragraph in which you give some quotation, or sum up the ideas or give your personal opinion.
  • Revise your essay.
  • Let it not be too lengthy or too brief.

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Introduction to Essay Writing its Parts and Qualities

What is an Essay?

When we do not know the exact meaning of a word we look up for the same in the dictionary. It is really an interesting exercise to compare and contrast, the meaning and the definition available in various dictionaries.

The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines essay as:

“A literary composition on any subject, usually in prose and short.”

 Whereas in the Chamber’s Twentieth Century Dictionary, the essay has been defined as:

A trial; an experiment; a written composition, less elaborate than a treatise.

 Etymologically essay means:

To weigh, to balance.

Though defining a thing means putting a limit, it will, however, not be out of place if a few definitions by renowned scholars are quoted.

The oft-quoted definition is that of Dr. Johnson who defined essay as:

A loose sally of mind; an irregular, indigested piece; not a regular and orderly composition.

Read also: An Introduction to Letter Writing for Beginners

This definition has been criticised since its very inception—-rightly or otherwise. Benson did not attach much importance to the subject, matter but to the charm of personality.

According to him:

The essential point about an essay is not the subject but the charm of personality.

Bacon, the most renowned essayist, said:

Reading macketh a full man; writing an exact man; ani conference a ready man.

None can become an exact man until he is conscious of what he writes.

Essay is the product of our

  • Reading
  • Observation
  • Thinking
  • Practice

Read also: How do you start writing a short story in simple 4 Steps?

Qualities of a Good Essay

Essay being the reflection of writer’s whims, caprices, idiosyncrasies, and rationality, it is difficult to bind it in a few stereotyped qualities. As the subject-matter includes Anything from the Day of Judgement to a pair of scissors, as Lynd puts it, the qualities are likely to be different from essay to essay. All the essays, however, possess some common qualities.

Structure:

Essay is an organic whole but not unshaped lump. It is divided into paragraphs of different length.
Unity: Essay is like a building which is, no doubt, made of individual bricks but each brick is not called a building. It is the unity of design which goes to make the building. Similarly, every sentence, each paragraph, and essay as a whole should have unity. The systematic development of thought is the keynote of a good essay. Digression and unnecessary padding will defeat the very purpose of an essay.

Coherence:

The ideas in the essay should not hang loose like gossamer but should be stitched together in a logical sequence. Ideas in the essay are inter-linked like the links of chain. Disjointed ideas will mar the beauty of the essay. The hotch-potch of ill-digested ideas creates anarchy in the essay.

Balance:

A proper proportion should be maintained between the various parts of the essay. If the trivial points are unduly stretched and important points unduly economized, the essay will have ill-balance which is a disqualification. The main theme should always be kept in mind.

Suppose the essay has to be written in about 1,000 words, the best division of paragraphs and points would be to put approximately:

  • 100 words in the introduction.
  • 100 words in different paragraphs numbering 8.
  • About 100 words in the conclusion.

Choice of Subject:

Choose the topic with which you are thoroughly acquainted. Some students select unfamiliar subjects, simply wishful thinking. A man who is the master of the topic with which you have got only nodding acquaintance will secure definitely higher marks than you. Understand the subject-thoroughly before you start writing. The wrong start will mean the Wrong essay.

Read also: My First Day at College Essay for FSc Second Year

Parts of an Essay

An essay can be divided into following parts:

The Introduction:

Every essay needs an introduction. An introduction is the face of the essays. It should, therefore, be striking, fascinating and must at once capture the attention of the reader. Various essayists have started their essays in different ways. The modern tendency is to take a direct plunge into the subject-matter. The hackneyed method was to start the essay with a definition or quotation. The start may also depend on the particular subject-matter. Even a quotation may be most fit if the subject of the essay can conveniently accommodate it.

The Body:

It is the most important portion of the essay. Here only one is likely to be led astray. The middle of the essay contains the main discussion on the subject-matter and as such attempts should be made to avoid non-essential material.

The Conclusion:

Conclusion flows naturally out of the essay. No hard and fast rules can be prescribed. The end should neither be dramatic nor abrupt but natural. It is the last impression on the reader or the examiner.

Be very careful that last impression is not bad. No indication of

  • It is the time, the essay should end
  • In conclusion, I may add
  • O God, solve the problems
  • Lack of time did not allow me to write more, etc.

should be given. If the introduction is the face, middle the body, conclusion constitutes the legs of the essay. If a beautiful face and symmetrical body are supported on lean legs, the whole structure will lose its charm. The essay is an organic whole, hence the beginning, the middle and the end are to be knit together.

Style:

Dean Alford says in this connection:

Be simple, be unaffected, be honest in your speaking and writing. Never use a long word where a short one will do. Simplicity is the soul of good English.

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Important Pair of Words With Sentences for 1st Year

Set # 1

These are some pairs of words which are frequently used in our daily life and constantly repeated in the fifth and eight classes examinations of punjab sindh kpk balochistan boards. Students can avail from these sentences which are given below in a table form. These are also most benefits for the pec guess papers of science group and model papers issued by punjab examination and federal board. These commonly used words are mostly lead by the gujranwala , multan,  faisalabad and lahore boards.

WORDSSENTENCES
 Dependent
Dependant
 My parents are dependent on me.
Although he has ten dependants, he is quite happy.
 Desirable
Desirous
 Your behaviour in the meeting was not desirable.
He is desirous to settle in Makkah.
 Doubt
Suspect
 We cannot doubt his honesty.
Even his enemies never suspect his truthfulness.
 Draught
Drought
 It is good to drink water in many draughts.
We are facing the danger of drought this year.
 Drop
Droop
 Our fielders dropped many easy catches.
He drooped to the lowest level of immorality.
 Economic
Economical
 The economic condition of our country is not so good.
He spends money in an economical way.
 Effective
Efficient
 This injection is effective against malaria.
Efficient workers are respected everywhere.
 Emigrate
Immigrate
 Many Pakistanis have emigrated to England.
Western Countries do not allow people to immigrate.
 Emigrant
Immigrant
 The number of Afghan emigrants has increased.
The American government discourages immigrants.
 Empire
Umpire
 The Ottoman Empire reflected the true Islamic culture.
The third umpire revised the decision.
 Empty
Vacant
 The glass is empty.
There is no vacant room in the hotel.
 Enviable
Envious
 His result is enviable
I am envious of the performance of my elder brother.
 Enviable
Insure
 He ensured me of his help.
The car is insured.
 Essay
Assay
 Write an essay on “My Best Friend”.
we assayed to climb the hill
 Excite
Incite
 The players were quite excited in the final.
Do not incite the people against the government.
 Exclude
Include
 He was excluded from the team for his misconduct.
His proposal includes many good points.
 Explicit
Implicit
 His conduct is as explicit as the daylight.
Try to get to the implicit message of the writer.
 Expression
Impression
 This poem is the true expression of the poet’s feelings.
The first impression is the last impression.
 Fatal
Fateful
 Protect your children from fatal diseases.
The Second World War proved fateful.
 Fly
Flee
 The seagull flew in the air.
We forced the enemy to flee
 Fog
Folk
Fake
 Fog delayed our arrival.
Our folktales are very interesting.
Some of our parliamentarians are fake degree holders.
 Formerly
Formally
 Hand-woven cloth was formerly very popular.
The agreement will be formally announced tomorrow.
 Forward
Foreward
 At last he took a step forward.
He has written a foreward to this book.
 Four
Fore
 A cow has four legs.
The result was fore-told by the media a week ago.
 Freedom
Liberty
We won freedom in 1947.
Don’t give your children a lot of liberty.
 Gentle
Genteel
 He is gentle in his behaviour.
Quaid-e-Azam lived a genteel life
 Ghostly
Ghastly
 This dog has ghostly appearance.
Unfortunately, his behaviour is so ghastly
 Humility
Humiliation
 His greatest quality was his humility.
He had to suffer a lot of humiliation in the election.
 Healthy
Healthful
 He is quite healthy even in his old age.
Morning walk is a healthful activity.
 Hop
Hope
 He started hopping with joy.
We hope we will succeed.
 Imaginary
Imaginative
 This story is purely imaginary.
Wordsworth was an imaginative poet.
 Imperial
Imperious
 The king had to surrender all his imperial authority.
He treats his subordinates in an imperious way.
 Imply
Infer
 What does this statement imply?
I can infer that you are interested in this scheme.
 Incredible
Incredulous
 Don’t listen to him, his story is incredible.
It is difficult to convince such incredulous people.
 Ingenious
Ingenuous
 Everyone appreciated his ingenious plan.
Ingenuous people are trusted by everyone.
 Injection
Injuction
 This injection is effective against malaria.
Interest is against Islamic injunctions.
 Insensible
Senseless
 Insensible friends always pose problems.
The Oldman was found senseless on the road.
 Illicit
Elicit
 They were charged for illicit drug sale.
We could not elicit any response from the class.
 Intelligent
Intelligible
 Salma is a very intelligent girl.
His lecture was not clear and intelligible.
 Interesting
Interested
 We enjoyed this interesting story.
I am not interested in sports.
 Intolerable
Intolerant
 His harsh attitude was intolerable.
Intolerant people create problems for others.
 Judicial
Judicious
 Liaqat is facing a judicial inquiry.
It was a judicious decision.
 Junction
Juncture
 Khanewal is a big Railway junction.
He helped us at a critical juncture.
 Jealous
Envious
 I am not jealous of your success.
One should be envious, rather than jealous of anyone
 Kettle
Cattle
 Kettle, She is preparing tea in the kettle.
His uncle has a big cattle farm.
 Knotty
Naughty
 He is wise enough to solve such knotty problems.
The teacher punished the naughty boys.
 Less
Fewer
 My college is less than a mile from my house.
There were fewer boys in the class today
 Mental
Mantel
Mantle
 This mental work will tire you.
I saw his portrait on the mantel.
These hills are wearing a mantle of snow.
 Message
Massage
 Please give my message to your father.
Massage gives relaxation to the tired body.
 Momentary
Momentous
We should not go after momentary joys of life.
The Battle of Badr was a momentous event.

Check Also

  • Set # 1 – Pair of Words for 5th 8th Class Examinations
  • Set # 2 – Pair of Words for Matric Inter Bachelor Master
  • Set # 3 – Pair of Words for NTS PPSC PMS FPSC Tests
  • Set # 4 – Pair of Words for FSc FA ICS BA BSc
  • Set # 5 – Pair of Words for CSS Intelligence Bureau
  • Set # 6 – Pair of Words for MDCAT ECAT

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