The processed data is called information. Information is an organized and processed form of data. It is more meaningful than data and is used for making decisions. Data is used as input for the processing and information is the output of this processing. This information can be used again in some other processing and will be considered as data in that processing.
For example, marks of a student in difícrent subjects is the data. To calculate the total marks, the marks of different subjects are used as data and total marks is the information. Now, to calculate the average marks of the student, this information will be processed again. In this processing, the information is used as data and average marks will be the information.
Examples of Information
In colleges and universities, the raw facts about students are stored on admission forms. If we want to find out a list of all students who live in Faisalabad, we will apply some processing on this data. This processing will give us the desired list. This list is a form of processed data and will be called information.
- The data stored in the census is used to generate different type of information. For example, the Government can use it to find a total number of graduates in the country or literacy rate in the country, etc. The information is obtained by processing the data. The government can use the information in important decisions to improve literacy rale.
- An organization can use the opinion of the people as data and process it to generate information of its interest. For example, it can know how many people of the country are satisfied with the quality of its product and how many are unsatisfied. The organization can use this information for the improvement of its product.
Information technology is the technology that uses computing with high-speed communication links to spread information from one place to another. The interconnection of computers enables people to send and receive information. The communication links also are used to interact with different people in the world.
Computer is an important component of information technology. It makes possible to use information technology for solving problems.
The world has become a global village due to the advancement in information technology. It means that people living in the world know one another as if they are living in a village. It has become possible due to fast communication links. Information can be transferred from one place to another place easily and quickly.
Information technology has enabled different types of institutions and organizations to be a part of digital convergence. The digital convergence means that various industries have merged electronically to exchange information. These industries include computers, electronics, telecommunications and mass media etc. This merging has a deep effect on the modern world. The information can be communicated in any shape such as photographs, movies, audio, graphical shapes, text and digital diagrams etc.
Components of Information Technology
Three components of information technology are as follows:
- Computers: Electronic systems can be instructed to accept, process, store, and present data and information.
- Communications Network: It is an interconnection of different locations through a medium that enables people to send and receive information. Communication network allows people and businesses to interact. It includes hardware, programs and information. Information technology has become revolutionary through the use of communication networks. Information can be transferred from one place to another easily and quickly.
- Know-how: Know-how is the capability to do something properly. Information
technology know-how consists of the following:
- Familiarity with the tools of information technology including the Internet.
- Possession of the skills needed to use these tools.
- Understanding of using information technology for problem-solving and creating opportunities.
People should know the use of information technology to solve problems. They should also know how information technology can create opportunities for them.
Data Processing Life Cycle
Data processing life cycle is a collection of steps required to convert data into information. Different steps of data processing life cycle are as follows:
- Input: In this step, data is collected and given to the computer for processing.
- Process: In this step, computer processes data to generate information.
- Output: In this step, the information is given to the user as output.
- Storage: In this step, the information is stored in the computer for future use. This step is optional.