The computer was invented because “necessity is the mother of invention”. Man always searched for a fast calculating device. It took a long time to invent a digital computer. A brief history behind the invention of the computer is as follows:
The first computing device was ABACUS. It was developed in 600 B.C. It was used to perform simple addition and subtraction. It consists of wooden beads. The beads could be move easily. Calculations were performed by moving these beads properly.
John Napier’s Bone
Another manual calculating device was John Napier’s bone. It was a cardboard multiplication calculator. It was designed in the early 17ın century.
The first mechanical adding machine was invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642. It could only add and subtract numbers. Division and multiplication was done by repeated addition and subtraction.
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz
In 1694, a German scientist Leibnitz developed a calculating machine. It was the first calculator that could multiply and divide also.
A French scientist Charles Xavier developed a machine that could perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
A French engineer Joseph developed a punchboard system for power looms. It was used to create a specific weaving pattern on cloths. Later on, the system was used in computing devices.
In 1822, a mathematician Charles Babbage invented a difference engine for mathematical calculations. In 1842, he developed an Analytical Engine that was automatic. This engine could perform 60 additions per minute.
In 1889, Herman applied the idea of punchboards in computers. He used punch cards in computers for input and output.
Atanasoff was a professor at Lowa University. He invented the electronic computer. He applied Boolean algebra to computer circuitry.
George Boole simplified binary system of algebra. His rule states that any mathematical equation can be stated simply as either true or false.
The Mark I Computer (1937-44)
It is also known as the Automatic Sequence controlled calculator. It was first fully automatic calculating machine. It was designed by Edward A. Aiken of Harvard University, It was very reliable but huge in size.
The ENIAC (1943-46)
ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator. It was invented by J.P. Eckert and John Mauchly in 1940. It was an electronic computer.
The EDVAC (1946-52)
EDVAC stands for Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Calculator. It was developed by Dr. John Von Veumannl! could store instructions and data.
The UNIVAC (1951)
UNIVAC stands for Universal Automatic Computer. It was first digital computer. It was used in business and industries.
The first commercial computer was 701. It was introduced by IBM (International Business Machines).