Central Processing Unit

CPU stands for the central processing unit. It is the brain of the computer. It is the most important element of a computer system. It is also called a processor.

CPU is located on the motherboard, CPU J carries out most of the work of a computer. Data passes through CPU continually. Data comes from RAM and other units such as keyboard and drives etc. CPU processes the data and sends it back to RAM and other units.

CPU continually receives instructions to execute. Each instruction tells CPU to process data. CPU performs all operations on data according to the given instructions. It executes instructions and fells other parts of computer what to do. Most of the work consists of calculations and data transfer. CPU consists of two main units:

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CPU consists of two main units:

  • ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit)
  • CU (Control unit)

1. ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit)

ALU is a part of CPU. Actual execution of the instructions takes place in this part. All arithmetic and logical operations are performed in ALU. It consists of two units:

  1. Arithmetic unit
  2. Logic unit

1. Arithmetic Unit

Arithmetic unit of the ALU performs basic arithmetic functions such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

2. Logic Unit

Logic unit of the ALU performs logical operations like comparing two data items to find which data item is greater than, equal to, or less than the other.

2. Control Unit

Control Unit is an important component of CPU. It controls all the activities of the computer system. It is also called the supervisor of the computer.

CU performs the following operations:

  1. It fetches instructions from main memory.
  2. It interprets that instruction to find what operation is to be performed.
  3. It controls the execution of the instruction.

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