The conditions of the Muslim had become very miserable after the failure of the War of Independence in 1857 Misunderstanding had increased by the conflict of the two civilizations. The English were afraid of the Muslim and the Muslim Rated the English. The English wanted to wipe out the power of the Muslims so that they might not perturb them Under the circumstances they needed a time server, a sincere and steadfast person who could make them aware of the needs of the time and who should be able to change the condition of the Muslims according to the new situation.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan took the responsibility of this task. He thought, first of all, the innocence of Muslim should be proved to the English. Because English were suspicious of the Muslim The English should be made aware of their wrong policies. So that, he wrote a treatise “The causes of the Indian Mutiny”.
He proved that not only the Muslims but the Hindus also participated in it. He also explained to the English that the Muslims despised the English because they had already been the rulers With the deprival of the Government, they were also deprived of kind of facilities. Sir Syed wanted that the Muslim should be aware of the modern sciences. He drew the attention of the Muslims every field, but most of all he concentrated on modern science. For this purpose, he laid the foundation of the Scientific Society in 1864.
The Scientific Society Newspaper
The newspaper “The Scientific Society’ was issued from Aligarh on March 3, 1866 and continued even after the death or Sii Syed. It began as a weekly newspaper and was later converted into a biweekly newspaper. The specialty of this newspaper was that it printed one column in Urdu and the other column in English, which was the version of the Urdu Column Some essays were printed separately in Urdu and English. In the beginning, Sir Syed wrote political essays in it, so that the government could know the feelings of the masses and political interest could be created among the massed. Maulana Hali in his book “HAYAT-I-JAVED” writes that this newspaper included social, moral and political essays Articles translated from English newspapers were also printed in it Sir Syed himself was the Editor of this newspaper He never convened his contemporaries by it. Seriousness and soberly were its main qualities, otherwise, in that period the most serious topics were dealt with in a humorous manner. The language was very simple. He used English words with Urdu words in abundance This newspaper never vomited venom against foreign nations. It criticized the government moderately It also maintained its freedom. This newspaper was free from illogical episodes News was taken from the most reliable sources I was so regularly published that it continued for 33 years.
Sir Syed impressed the people very much with his writing which were simple and straight forward. The attitude was that of a friend. He drew the attention of the people by his arguments The . language was very polite. He wrote such essays as reformed the morals of the people. There was no tradition of writing editorials Sir Syed emphasized it. He removed in any drawbacks of journalism. He raised the standard of the newspapers. He wrote the editorial himself and criticized government policies without fear.
The “Scientific Society” was a political, moral and Solat neu paper. It was not only for the Muslims but also for all into Indian The movement that Sir Syed started was especially for the Muslims He thought that it was very necessary for the view poin the nation to be cast in the new political mold They should be freed from the chains of slavery and given a lesson on freedom. For this purpose, he issued the magazine “The Tahzib-i-Akhlaq”. The magazine printed articles whose main objective was to change the viewpoint of the nation. The first issue was published on December 24, 1890. The English name was “The Muhammadan Social Reformer” li was printed in the Urdu language only It had twelve pages and each page had two columns. The whole subject matter was printed on a very fine paper Generally it was printed thrice a month in the first edition Sir Sved wrote under the heading “Its objective is to persuade the Indian Muslim to adopt! the highly polished civilization so that they might be counted sophisticated among the respectable nations of the world. He emphasized that religion and society were supreme and dominate above everything for the Muslim He also wanted that religion tested on the touchstone, At last, this magazine was closed atter continuing for six years and seven months.
The Effects of “The Tahzib-i-Akhlaq”
Maulana Hali noted down comprehensive details in this respect but briefly is as under:
- Sir Syed supported the stunting ship of the Muslim
- Islamic schools were established in every corner of the country
- The English language was used by the people
- The Muslin came to know about the achievements of their forefathers and created a spirit for development among them
- The doubts and suspicions created by the writings Europeans writers were removed.
- The prejudices of the Muslims decreased. They developed the spirit of depending on their own sources
- It created a sense of Islamic nationality among the Muslim
- It brought about a revolution in Urdu literature and its poetry took a new direction
- The articles were written on religion and religious problems were discussed in a simple and easy language
- It resulted in the establishment of the Muhammiklar
College at Aligarh Sir Syed’s Contribution
According to Khalida Adeeba Khanum
“If we look at Sir Syed from any angle, he was universal. He was like a stone in the stagnant water of India. Sir Syed told the Muslims that they could not win their fighting against the English rather they would ruin. They should level the path to recognizing them in every field to protect their existence.”
A Revolution in Urdu Literature
Sir Syed brought about a great revolutions in Urdu literature by virtue of his forceful writings He used simple language to make the people understand his arguments His movement was very influential. Sir Syed fully understood the attitude of Hindus in 1857. He directed literature towards lite to arise the Muslims from the state of disappointment and frustration He tried no change the life of the Muslims by virtue of literature and succeeded in it. His medium of expression was simple rather than rhythmical. He chose topics based on rationalism. He began to write on modern innovations and morals.
He made the Muslims Conscious of Their Life
The Muslims were made conscious of their life by Sir Syed and the magazines published by him The Muslims were greatly disappointed after the failure of the Independence War in 1857 They avoided education. They did not like the slavery of the English. He exhorted the Muslims to mangle with the English so that they might enjoy a status in society. In addition to this, he waged upon them to study modern sciences.
Two Nation Ilicory
When Sir Syed became aware of the designs of the Congress, then he made it clear that Muslims are a separate nation. Their religion is very powerful. They should demand a separate homeland of their own.
Introduction of Urdu Political Journalism
There was no political journalism before Sir Syed The local newspapers were strictly banned. The newspapers of that lime gave information about the ruler and the changes in climate Sir Syed was the first journalist who brought politics into his newspapers He criticized the government in an impressive way.
The Beginning of Editorial Writing
In the sub-continued of India and Pakistan, there was no such thing as editorial. Sir Syed added to the newspaper the editorial page. He expressed his opinion on political problems in it and also discriminated between right and wrong.
Raised the status of Journalism
Before Sir Syed, the newspapers gave information about the supers. He raised the status of Journalism. The other newspapers were translated into Urdu from English newspapers and, therefore, there was no continuity. He gave news from reliable sources and only wrote important things in the newspaper. He used a very simple and easily intelligible language. He thought it was his duty to give moral training to the Indian masses The other newspapers followed Sir Syed’s Journalism acquired a sound and strong status and the newspaper began to receive attention in government circles.
He Added Sobriety Seriormess to Journalism
The English to Urdugnt journalism India The people of India adopted the same style as was adopted by English newspapers. Everything was written in a playful and humorous manner. Sir Syed was the first man who gave to the writing of the newspaper sobriety and seriousness.