Maulana Muhammad Ali Jouhar was born in 1878. His father died when he was only two years old. His mother was a traditional lady, who was called Bi-Amaan. She gave special attention to the education and training of her two sons. Her aim was that her sons should serve Islam when they grew-up.
Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar passed his Matriculation Examination from Bareilly High School. He appeared in the BI Examination in 1876 and got the first position in the university te was well known as the first Indian Secretary of Oxford Universiti He possessed an imposing personality and always were clean and tidy clothes His fiery personality had command over both the languages, Urdu and English.
In 1910 he gave up service and joined journalism and politics. He had written articles in different newspapers before that He issued “Comrade” from Calcutta in 1911.
When the capital was shifted to Delhi, “The Comrade was also shifted to Delhi. He was a staunch Muslim in love all the Muslims throughout the world. In 1912 he was working in an office when Reuter gave the news “The Greek forces are twenty-five miles from Constantinople.
He was deeply depressed by it and was ready to com suicide as he thought his life worthless. He gave up that when his friend made him understand on his point.
The First World War began in 1911 and the British newspaper “The London Times” wrote an editorial under the heading “The Choice of Turks”. In it, hatred was vomited against the Turks When he read it, he took pen in spite of illness and wrote its answer atter sitting for forty hours continuously I was published under the same heading on September 20. 141. It caused unrest in the English House of Lords. This article was confiscated, as well as the security of the Press. The Comrade was closed in November 1914, in view of continuous confliction, Maulana Jauhar and his brother Maulana Shaukat Ali were arrested.
He was the founder of the Khilafat Movement where objectives were that the British Government should step fighting in Turkey. He participated in the London Round Table Conference as a representative of the Muslims. He was seriously ill when he was asked about his illness, he told the British rulers that he had come to get independence “If independence is not given. he will die then and there.” Accordingly, it happened so The demands were not accepted. He died in London. He was buried in Jerusalem according to his will.
Johar’s View about Journalism
When he was in service in Baroda a certain friend suggested that he should bring out a newspaper He wrote a letter in reply which presents the code of ethics for journalism it is as follows:
- The newspaper should be beyond personal attacks. Neither should the editor write in praise of a certain person non should he would write against the enemy.
- Whatever is written. it should be written with Sobriety and Seriousness.
- The objective of a newspaper is not to harm any other nation but to benefit one’s own nation, so far as possible religious discussion should be avoided.
- The newspaper is the sum total of news. Therefore, it should mostly have news that is always true and authentic.
- The editorial should be written on an important and current affair. It should be written with labour, research and after careful study.
Maulana’s Contribution to Journalism
He started his fouthaltstic Tite W 1910. He fought with the Hindus and the English who were against the Muslims He championed the two-nation theory. He protected the rights of the Muslims within the country and tried his level best for their survival at the international level. He thought that all the Muslims were like flowers in a garden.
The manner of thought of Jauhar and Iqbal was the same. He had not the power of weapons but he rightened the English by the power of his word (pen). Maulana used the First person in his writings, particularly in editorials. Maulana’s editorials were divided by three categories, one was the rise of Islam and complete destruction of heresy (deviation from the right path). The second was the independence of the Sub-Continent of Indo-Pak The third was the welfare of the Muslims He wrote comprehensive editorials on these three subjects. He knew Arabic, Persians. English and Urdu. He mostly used these languages in his writings Whenever he thought proper, he also wrote Quaranic verses, but in a simple and easy language.
The first issue of “The Comrade” was published on January 11, 1911. He brought out this newspaper in a helpless condition There was no type writer or any other employee for “The Comrade”. He did everything himself. But, as soon as this newspaper was published it caused panic in the world of journalism. Many people, who had identical thoughts gathered around him. This was the first Muslim newspaper in English This newspaper raised the dignity of Muslim journalism He convincest the Government that the Muslims also have a command of the English language. At that time, the English and Anglo Indians controlled the newspapers who wrote is support of the Government.
The great Englishmen were surprised when they thought of the language and style of Muhammad Ali Jauhar. He was till: familiar with religious and secular education. This newspaper competed with great English newspapers. The objective of “The Comrade” was to convey the voice and the problems of the masses to the Government. “The Comrade” also published a permanent column under the heading “Gossip”.
Maulana had the following concept in his mind about “Hamdard”.
“I want to bright out a daily of the first rank whose members are Sajjad Haider Yeldram, Maulvi Abdul Haque, Inayat Ullah. Khawaja Ghulam, Sheikh Abdul Qadir, and Mahfooz Ali, but Allama Iqbal should also be its member”
Maulana Jauhar hired the services of Reuter and Associated Press. In addition to this, he also appointed traveling correspondents. This newspaper was started on February 23. 1913 Firstly, it consisted of one of two leaves but it became a complete newspaper of 10 pages in June. Maulana was the first journalist who made prevalent printing by type in daily journalism. Later on, he gave up the type method and adopted the lithotype Maulana issued “The Hamdard” at a time when “The Zamindar” had acquired power and authority in the Sub-Continent. In spite of this the Hamdard was different from “The Zamindar” Contrary 10 “The Zamindar”, it adopted the course of sobriety and argumentative journalism.
The Hamdard is the first Urdu daily which started the Editorial Conference Jauhar wrote articles against the Press to He wrote with great caution when it was necessary to say the truth, he did it fearlessly.
Jauhar gave much attention to the newspaper in the first period but he could not give full attention in the second period On account of a busy life, Jouhar wrote in “The Hamdard” on April 27, 1927, I can make “The Hamdard” interesting with my own pen, but I am awfully busy and cannot spend any time on advice.
The policy of the Hamdard was the same as that of “The Comrade”. This newspaper was closed on April 12. 1929 for lack of money “The Zamindar” introduced popular journalism while “The Hamdard” made quality journalism common.