There are four aspects of the communication process:
- The Communicator (encoder, source)
- The Message (codes, symbols)
- The Channels (TV, radio, newspaper)
- The Audience (decoder, destination)
In research language, the communicator is known as the encoder. The message whether words, pictures, or signs, becomes codes or symbols. The channels in the case of mass communication are one of the mass media (TV, Radio, and Newspaper). The person in the audience is known as the decoder.
For understanding the communication process we draw a HUB model of mass communication. It is set of concentric circles forms a pool into which the familiar pebbles (communication content) is dropped, sending ripples outward as the process toward the audience.
In the center are the communicators or encoders, in mass communication it may be newspaper staff, the TV news team. the advertising agency member team. Their massage or codes involve language or symbol system, such as the visual system that replaces dialogue in motion pictures. Before a message reaches a mass medium, it must pass through the organization’s GATEKEEPERS who make decisions about what will be communicated as they shape the content of their broadcast show, magazine or news service. News editors play the role of gatekeepers.
On the other side of the mass media ring are the regulators public pressure groups, government agencies, advertisers, consumers, courts, etc. that exert influence on the media, affecting content and performance After the regulator there is a ring of filters or frame of reference, through which audiences receive massage and which may enhance or cripple the effects. The frame of reference each person has a stored experience, consisting in part individual, ego-related beliefs and values and in part of the beliefs and values of the groups to which he or she belongs (family, job, social and other groups)