Unemployment, as defined by the International Labour Organization, occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively looked for work within the past four weeks.
One of the causes of unemployment in Pakistan is worsening law and order situation. Investors are losing confidence in the political and economic system of the country. Therefore, they are reluctant to invest. Consequently, new jobs are not being generated while the number of job seekers is rising continuously in the country.
Agriculture sector is facing severe challenges of water shortage, climatic changes and technological backwardness in recent years. These factors have hit the per acre yield negatively which caused losing of jobs of several people.
The industry is downsizing its labour force because of acute energy shortage which is causing severe damage to production capacity. World economic recession coupled with American war against terror has also put negative impacts on out economy. It has doubled our expenditures on the military.
Population increase is also a cause of unemployment in Pakistan. Besides these factors, poor governance, deep-rooted corruption, faulty educational system, lack of quality educational institutions and feudalism are further aggravating the situation.
Unemployed individuals are unable to earn money to meet financial obligations. Failure to pay rent may lead to homelessness. Unemployment increases susceptibility to malnutrition, illness, mental stress, and loss of self-esteem, leading to depression.
For every 10 per cent increase in the number of unemployed, there is an increase of 1.2 per cent in total mortality, a 1.7 per cent increase in cardiovascular disease, 1.3 per cent more cirrhosis cases, 1.7 per cent more suicides, 4.0 per cent more arrests and 0.8 per cent more crimes reported to the police.
During a long period of unemployment, workers can lose their skills, causing a loss of human capital. Being unemployed can also reduce the life expectancy of workers by about 7 years.
The government must control the population. The government should take measures to increase its resources. New industries should be set up in the country. Law and order situation should be improved to encourage foreign investment. Agriculture sector should be revolutionized. A network of services should be expanded. New jobs must be created. Advice of experts must be sought on this issue. The government must leave no stone unturned to solve the problems of unemployment which is the breeding ground of innumerable vices in the society.