Scientific Development in Pakistan – 500 Words Essay
“Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration”.(Newton)
These inspiring words of Newton are the secret of all scientific development. No socio-economic and scientific and tech. progress is possible without a sound educational system. Unfortunately, Pakistan is most restarted educationally. Moreover, education is aimless.
Wonder is the seed of science. Scientific genius is curious to know the what, why and how of things. These queries are solved through experiments and research. Research is the soul of all scientific progress. The test of good research scholar is that he makes some addition to the sum total of knowledge. Judged on this touchstone, we find that little original contribution has been made by our scientists. Our students lack in the two eyes-desire and curiosity through which all education is possible.
Three features have marked the astonishing progress of science. The first is a scientific attitude of mind, which insists on objective reasoning. The second is the host of wonderful instruments, and the third, growing, effective use of mathematics. According to these yard-sticks, Pakistan has little to boast of. We have very few scientists of note. The new generation does not come up to Newton’s diction. Men like Dr. Salimuzz-Zaman, Dr. Salam and Dr. Qadeer belong to the old generation.
When compared to the other Muslim and third-world countries, Pakistan has made feasible progress in scientific field during last forty years in spite of the drain of good, devoted and efficient hands. The establishment of Pakistan Council of Industrial and Scientific Research (PCSIR) in 1953, was the first step in this direction. It has absorbed many talented men of science, mostly foreign qualified. The other research agencies are Zoological Survey of Pakistan (1947). The Cotton Committee (1948), The Food and Agricultural Council (1949) and the most important and indispensable Atomic Energy Commission (1955).
The work of, Scientific research is both qualitative and quantitative. It is carried on both in the Labs and in the fields. It requires lårge funds and huge investment. In spite of the paucity of funds, the PCSIR has made great contributions in a number of manufacturing goods, textiles, development of drugs and medicines. The Agricultural sector has shown better results through the introduction of good scientific manures and seeds. Wheat, cotton, rice, sugar cane and fruits have shown progressive and increasing yield.
Pakistan has achieved wonderful results in the field of Nuclear Energy. Our Nuclear Programme is aimed at peaceful purposes. PINSTECH has made a great contribution in Nuclear physics and Reactor Technology, Nuclear Chemistry and Nuclear Engineering on electronics. Our nuclear programmes have helped in developing a good variety of crops, pest control and control of malignant diseases.
Universities are now paying greater attention to research work. Centers of advanced studies and specialized fields have been established as follows:
- Baluchistan University – Mineralogy Sindh
- University – Agricultural Chemistry
- Punjab University Solid -State Physics
- Peshawar University – Geology
In western countries, the private sector and corporations have come out with wonderful achievements and results in various scientific-technological fields. If we want to catch up with them, we must change our educational base and involve the private sector in the national development Programme.
Scientific Development in Pakistan – 2000 Words Essay
- Science transcending the limits of creea, colour and nationality
- The cause of the supremacy of the developed countries
- Educational Standard in Pakistan
- The need to rebuild our educational system
- The heavy expenditure made on experiments and research
- Small allocation for education in our national budget
- Government’s efforts to setup independent research agencies
- Result of researches carried out by various laboratories of PCSIR
- Wonderful results achieved in atomic energy
- Formation of various semiautonomous bodies
- The major steps in oth plan
- The need for the intensive and sustained application of sophisticated scientific knowledge
Wonder is deed of science
Science is universal and knows no national boundaries. The scientific inventions and discoveries made in one part of the world, soon become property of the whole of mankind and everybody is benefited and served by them. The aim of science is to reduce human sufferings and pains and to promote the general welfare. Everybody irrespective of nationality, status, colour or creed can enjoy the blessings of science. It is the anchor sheet of the present economic and social progress. Modern civilization could not be what it is without scientific and technological development.
The present supremacy of the developed countries and the viable standards of living of their people is essentially due to their spectacular progress in science and technology, which in turn depends on high educational standard and Research and Development (R&D) facilities. The prerequisites for scientific and technological research are sound educational base, spirit of inquiry (what, why and how) financial soundness, growing of inputs in the enterprise, and above all, ambition to rise.
The most striking difference between the developed and non-developed or developing countries is the scientific and technological base of their economy. In fact scientific development and economic progress are reciprocal terms. They are being reinforced by each other. The present economic ‘surplus’ of the developed countries and their strength are the results of their highly sophisticated and developed technologies. On the other hand, the backwardness of the Third World nations and their all-too-familiar pattern of dependence on the west is due to their lean and weak technological base, which rests on heavy investments.
Pakistan is also one of the developing countries. The government and the planners have realized from the very beginning that if the country wants to progress in different sectors and wishes to be self reliant, they must pay all out attention to scientific and technological know-how through constant Research and Development. The present parasital nature of country’s economy, import oriented trade and crushing burden of the foreign loans are all due to poor educational standard, lack of technical know-how and unsuccessful planning. Curiosity and desire are the two eyes through which all educational and scientific progress is possible.
If one focuses attention on the requisites for the development, the situation is not very encouraging. To begin with educational standard is very poor to produce the necessary personnel and scholars for the development tasks. Pakistan has produced good sportsmen and fine soldiers during last forty years but very few scientists of note and great scholars. The Noble Prize winner Dr. Abdul Salam and men like Dr. Salim-uz-Zaman and Dr. Qadeer can be counted on fingers and belong to the old generation. The achievements of the new generation are not very encouraging. In fact education is the best national investment. The present share of investment on education is hardly 2% of the national expenditure. At present our colleges and universities are hot beds of dirty politics, regionalism, unfair means mania and Kelashincove culture. Moreover, education to a great extent is aimless. Peace and undivided attention are very essential for educational pursuit and research.
The whole education system is to be rebuilt from the very base. More attention is to be given to practical work at school and college levels and to research at the university level. The prevailing trend of bold use of unfair means in the examinations must be stopped with iron hands. The college teachers and university professors must rise above all considerations, and merit should be the only criteria for all admissions and selections. The universities are to be turned into real centres of excellence and encourage more research in science disciplines and applied science. Under the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) aid good results have been achieved in Applied Science Development at Qaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. The other universities must also concentrate on producing more Ph. D. and M. Phil’s so that the students may receive required training on projects of potential use to the community. All this is impossible unless the universities get sufficient grants and aids. Only disciplined and devoted scholars and youth can build the nation.
All scientific development programmes are highly expensive and demand constant and expanding investments. Research and Development are impossible without extensive inputs. The developed countries are spending huge amounts on experiments, research and development. The most unique feature of their economy is heavy investments on Research and Development (R&D) by the private sector. Big corporations and other corporate institutions are coming up with new inventions and technologies in various fields. They have the backing of sound and scientific education systems. Curiosity, ambition and encouragement have produced great men of science and technocrats. They have no paucity of funds. Billions of rupees are being spent on building new technologies and improving the old ones.
In Pakistan and other Third World countries, the case is otherwise. We have an outmoded and retarded education system. The country hardly spends 20% on university education. The National Budget has very small allocation for education. The economy is sustained and supported through foreign borrowings, loans, and grants. In spite of continuous planning’s (Seven Five Year Plans) nothing conspicuous has been achieved by the Government in the field of science and technology. Above all the Private Sector has very little contribution in Research and Development. Lack of technical know-how and expert manpower are great handicaps in the way of scientific development. Brain drain is a growing curse for the country. Good expert and highly qualified persons leave the country for want of encouragement and poor recognition and remuneration.
In spite of all the drawbacks and bottlenecks, free nations and free people should spare no attempts and constantly aspire for the better. Pakistanis are alive race and is determined to develop and progress. Knowing well that research and scientific inquiry are inseparably linked with the development and economic growth, the government has spared no efforts to put the country on road to development.
The rate of economic development is related to the extent and vitality of technological research. Modern methods of research are both qualitative and quantitative in nature and are applied in the lab as well as in the field. Realizing the limitations of research efforts within operational departments, the central government had setup various independent and quasi-independent research agencies in the early years of independence. These include the Zoological Survey of Pakistan (1947), The Cotton Committee (1948), The Food and Agricultural Committee (1953), The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) (1953) and the Atomic Energy Commission (1955).
The last two bodies have been busily active to boost up scientific research and develop new technologies. Besides building up strong infrastructure, a number of corporations and several technical and specialized institutions have been set up to promote industrial development in the country. During the early years of her existence Pakistan had meager scientific and technological resources. She largely depended on borrowed technology for her development. Anyhow, under various development plans more people were trained in modern technologies and scientific know-how so as to achieve an honourable place in the amity of developed nations. More funds had been reserved for this purpose during the successive Five Year Plan.
As a result of the researches carried out by the various laboratories of Pakistan Council of Scientific Industrial Research (PCSIR) large number of processes have been evolved for the benefits of the industrialists in different fields. Some of the fields covered through research are National Products, leather, food, glass, ceramics, mineral fuels, chemicals, drugs, engineering, cotton and jute textiles, natural gases, woolen fibres and synthetic materials. The new processes not only accounted for number of home manufactured goods, but also resulted in foreign exchange savings. The Agriculture Sector has shown better results through induction of better scientific manures and seeds developed by the various research centres in the country. Wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton and fruits have shown progressive increasing yields.
In the field of atomic energy Pakistan has achieved wonderful results in the applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Basic research in nuclear materials, nuclear physics and reactor technology, nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering and electronics has been successfully completed at PINSTECH by mid-seventies. The institute has made wonder break through in radio actives isotopes technology to promote research in different fields like agriculture land industry. Atomic Research Programmes have helped in developing better varieties of crops, pest control through irradiation and treatment and cure of malignant diseases.
Now university education has been made research oriented. To minimize dependence on foreign countries and to produce locally top expertise and leadership, to initiate, direct and accelerate tie process of socio-economic development, the following centres of advanced study in specialized fields have been established in various universities:
|Karachi University||Marine Biology|
|Sindh University||Analytical Chemistry|
|Punjab University||Solid State Physics|
Knowing that libraries are indispensable for higher learning and research and for scaling the height of knowledge, governments have released special funds for university librarians. Quaid-e-Azam Library, Lahore has more than 50,000 volumes to help in higher research.
No scientific progress is possible without sound infrastructure therefore various semiautonomous bodies were established after 1958, the main being, WAPDA, Agriculture Development Corporation and Road Transport Corporation. Inauguration of Basic steel and billet making plants during the fifth five-year plan was a historical step for steel is the backbone of civil and military engineering projects. The setting of Karachi Shipyard was another important step towards self-dependence.
Nuclear energy is both the effect and cause of scientific and industrial development. Inspite of the continuous efforts of PAEC and KANUP the energy and power resources are not sufficient to meet the requirements of a developing country like Pakistan.
The evolution of Biogas has come as great relief for rural economy. More than 4500 families in the villages of the four provinces are now using the gas for domestic purposes. The use of wind energy in windmills in half a dozen places in Sindh and Baluchistan have helped in saving the problems of water pumping.
The Sixth Fiv3 Year Plan (1983 – 88) has laid special stress on Science and Technological Development in order to attain self-reliance in science and technology. The creation of National Commission on Science and Technology (NCTS) as an apex decisionmaking and co-ordination body provided the requisite political will and authority to the scientific national efforts.
The major steps in the 9th plan were
- Setting up of an Inter – ministerial Commission for identifying active growth
in Applied Science
- Up grading and expanding of Scientific and Technological Research Institute working on Electronic silicon technology, oceanography and power research
- Setting up of institute of Science and Technology and Water logging and
salinity institute at international level
- Setting up of Building Reconstruction, Road reconstruction.
The solution of complex development problems of our age requires the intensive and sustained application of sophisticated scientific knowledge and technical skills. As such science and technology must constitute not an esoteric input but an integral component of all investments related to the national development process through the regular infusion of latest technological know-how, which can be provided only by a dynamic and creative scientific community. Therefore the science and technology sector must be made effective and strong to make its due contribution to speed up socio-economic uplift of the country.
Much has been done to buildup scientific and technological backbone in Industrial and Agricultural and Health sectors. There is no time to relax. Our Energy and Defence sectors call for great efforts to be self-supporting and self-reliant. Nowadays military strength is best deterrent Let us concentrate more on energy (atomic) and Defence Technology. No sacrifice is too blat for national build up and defence. The present government after the big disaster of Earthquake (October 8, 2005) taking serious steps toward the promotion of science.