Work is a great blessing of Adam. Man must work. Had it not been for work, it would have been very difficult for a man to pass time in this world. All work for subsistence; some work for keeping the body and soul together, others work for pleasure. Urge to work is a natural instinct.
In an economic sense, work means occupation, job or employment. There are three kinds of jobs
- paper jobs
- Tools jobs
- people jobs.
Full employment is an impossible economic ideal. Unemployment is a universal problem. Even the most advanced and prosperous countries are confronted with the problem. In spite of population control, they cannot provide jobs or employment to all.
The problem of unemployment is rather acute in all the developing and the Third World countries all over the globe. In spite of best attempts by their governments, the problem is on the increase. The main cause is overpopulation or population explosion, as is the case with Pakistan. The main reason is capital formation does not keep pace with growth in population. This results in structural long term unemployment. The country’s capacity to provide employment to the growing labor force is very limited. The result is large scale unemployment in urban areas and disguised unemployment in the labor force engaged in agriculture.
Our another problem is seasonal unemployment. The rural population engaged in agriculture generally becomes idle after the harvest seasons. Most of them migrate to urban areas. Growing urbanization has brought in many social and economic problems, both for the government and city population.
The equilibrium level of income and employment may be well maintained at full employment level. As a result of disequilibrium, there is bound to be some unemployment. This is known as cyclical or Keynesian unemployment which is due to lack of aggregate demand. There is too much capital for a short while, in relation to demand for goods and services. The government can increase investment by offering direct subsidies.
Unemployment is a serious problem facing the country. In spite of intensive planning, the problem is on the increase. The reason is unchecked growth in population. Unemployment problem is like Achille’s heel of Pakistan economy. According to an estimate, about one million people enter the labour market every year.
The problem of unemployment can not be solved through personal efforts. The measures perused by the government, have helped little to solve the problem due to the influx of rural population into the cities. The development programmes do absorb some labor force, but it results in growing inflation due to an increase in purchasing power.
In a conventional society like that of Pakistan or other oriental countries, the men force is supposed to earn and support the family members. Man is the main bread earner. The women manage the home. But nowadays there is a growing tendency among women to work. Both men and women work and prosper. The others go without jobs. The feminine factor in services has added to the gravity of unemployment in cities.
Favoritism, nepotism, and bribery deprive many deserving hands of employment. All these results in social disparity and equalities of opportunities. Both social and economic. measures can mitigate the problem. Above all self-help is the best help. The government cannot come to every body’s rescue.