“God made the country and man made the town’.(Cowper)
Nature has blessed Pakistan with rich bounties. It is a land of mighty mountains, murmuring rivers, green meadows and fields, sparkling springs, parch semi-desert, dancing harvests, perennial canals, changing weathers and historical heritage.
Pakistan is basically an agricultural country. Agricultural is the primary industry of Pakistan. About 70% of the population resides in the villages. She is famous for her both songs and folk dances. The popular pastime of the rustics. Agriculture plays a vital role in the economy of the country and contributes 30% to the Grand National Product. If feeds both the population and the industries.
Agricultural includes farming, forests, fisheries and mining. About 20 percent, (Average) cultivated areas is covered by crops. Wheat, rice, cotton, sugar cane, maize, and tobacco are the main crops. The country is very rich in fruits of various kinds. Horticulture, dairy farming, and poultry farming are practised all over the country.
Forests are important national wealth. They not only influence the climate but also produce useful products and raw material for medicine and manufacturing industries like sports goods, matches, paper, resin, and cottage industries like ropemaking and basket making. They are also rich source of fuel. About 4 percent of land comes under forests. Fisheries provide work for millions of people. Karachi, Gowadar, and Pusni are important fishing and fish exporting centers. The Arabian sea skirting the land is rich in fishes, prawns and shells. Minerals play a very important part in the national economy, particularly petroleum, gas, and coal. The mineral wealth is still to be tapped and extracted on an economic and large scale.
In spite of planned economy, agriculture has not registered ideal growth. The growth in the agricultural sector was maintained round about 6% during the 1st, 2nd and 3rd five-year plans. It dropped to 1.9 percent in the period 1977-81. The reasons are not far to seek. The farmers still practise conventional methods. They are conservative, uneducated and poor, They have still to learn modern scientific farming, use of good manure and fertilizers and good seeds.
The economy suffers from landlordism, sardari nizam, fragmentation of holdings, use of out-moded instruments. Fatalism, superstitions, and litigation still hold sway. They are ignorant about rules of health and hygiene, and poor health services impair their health. All there factors have adverse effects on the production and yield.
Natural hazards, lack of proper infrastructure, poor storage system and inadequate marketing facilities have hindered the tempo of agricultural development. Lack of proper education facilities, seasonal unemployment and dull and monotonous life without modern means of entertainment, have forced the villagers to leave the countryside and migrate to the towns and cities. This unchecked urbanization has not only hit the rural economy but has also resulted in untold problems for the citizens and the government.