The devastation (wide destruction) of the country in 2001 and 2002 was the result of the division of the society into tribes and groups having opposite or conflicting interests and a long history of political failure and social disorganization.
The first main cause of the worsened Afghan situation is the long war of independence started by the freedom fighters (“mujahideen”) in 1979. This war was the result of the Russian or Communist domination of the country.
The second main and general cause of the Afghan crisis is the poverty, inequality, and lack of education within the country. Most of the people are extremely poor with a hopelessly low standard of living. Nevertheless (however), the small class of rich property owners and smugglers of drugs like heroin continued to live in comfort and luxury giving rise to feelings of uneasiness and anger among the people.
The last cause of the heightened crisis is Afghanistan’s act of providing the Al-Qaida and Taliban organizations refuge, camps, and training facilities in the country. America and the West considered it responsible for the terrorist attacks on her vital trading centers and offices.
After the defeat of the Taliban and the establishment of an elected government, it is the political and moral duty of the new government to work for the progress and glory of the country. The current war between the American, Nato and other foreign forces and the Taliban is continuing at its height. After the foreign forces leave, the Afghan government should use her own armed forces to defend the borders and to maintain internal peace. The UN, with the advanced and rich Middle-Eastern countries, should participate in a grand Afghan development programme. An advanced Afghanistan will help establish permanent peace and an equitable (just) balance of power in South Asia to the benefit of the whole world.
In any case, Afghanistan should have progressive cultural links with Pakistan, Iran and the central Asian states. Growing trade with these countries will boost her economy. The transfer of scientific knowledge and technology from the developed world to Afghanistan should be Afghanistan’s first priority (preference) side by side with the education of the masses.
Afghanistan and Pakistan, especially, should develop the friendliest relations. When the people of both countries reach a reasonable level of educational and cultural advancement, they can progress in political, economic, scientific and cultural fields to great mutual advantage.