Science has made tremendous progress during the last two hundred years. Scientists have invented and developed new machines, medicines, weapons, etc which have made our life really modern.
A great invention of the 18th century was the steam-engine. First of all, it was used to keep water out of coal mines. Later, it was used to drive vehicles and railways trains. It was also used in steamships on the sea.
Another great invention of the 18th century is that of the electric telegraph. It made possible the use of the telephone on a large scale. The telegraph system made it possible for people in different cities and countries to talk to each other. Newspapers found it easy to get news from far-off places over the telephone for quick publication.
The radio is one of the greatest inventions of the modern age. It is the result of the successful use of electrical energy. In it, wireless waves carry sound and speech from the broadcasting station to radiosets. It has made possible for the people of one place to listen to radio stations of the entire world. It has helped different countries and peoples in coming closer.
Television is now in common use. In it pictures along with sound are sent from one place to another through wireless, or radio waves. It is a good means (way) of entertainment and education. Now colour television is very much in use.
The electronic computer can do complex mathematical calculations in a fraction of a second. It can also gather and store information. It guides us in the designing and construction of buildings, flying of planes, space travel, etc. It helps us in the diagnosis (discovering the nature of) and treatment of diseases.
The tractor has brought about a complete change in the old methods of plowing and cultivation the land. Vast areas of land can be ploughed with it in a short time. It has made mechanized farming possible. The mechanization of agriculture can however, cause large-scale unemployment if the farmhands made idle by machines are not employed in cottage (small sized) industries.
There are a great many useful inventions in the field of medicine. Now medicines like streptomycin can cure a number of diseases very quickly. “Quinine” is a chemical compound that is a cure for many kinds of fevers. Scientists and chemists have invented effective medicines for the cure of dangerous diseases like typhoid.”
There are also many dangerous and harmful inventions. These include (have in them) harmful. drugs and injections and weapons of war. Thus science has been used negatively.
Scientists should try to make useful inventions for the benefit of human beings. They should use their scientific knowledge for making inventions that can add to comforts and joys.