Science and War – 500 Words Essay
Scientists in the 20th century perfected weapons of mass destruction. Now, in the twenty-first century, they are busy developing even more destructive weapons and ways of using them more devastatingly, It is all because of scientific research and progress that different countries have light and heavy weapons of war guaranteeing (ensuring) total destruction once they are put to use.
In fact, ordinary materials used in war like gunpowder and poisonous gases are the result of scientific effort. Chinese scientists in olden times developed gunpowder. Shots of different kinds of guns were later developed by European scientists. They invented and developed ordinary guns at first, and then rifles, heavy guns, machineguns, etc. So, as time passed, scientists and technical experts wont on making or developing new kinds of weapons of greater destructive power.
Now, in our age, we have weapons of war with destructive capacities beyond description. The most advanced countries possess weapons that can causes large-scale destruction of life and property never to be found in any history book. They possess weapons like heavy guns, poisonous bombs, atomic or nuclear bombs, missiles, and what not, that can carry these bombs to the most far off places killing thousands in a few seconds.
Scientists and technical experts have put science to highly objectionable uses. They have developed weapons to be used on land, at sea and in the air. For example, they have developed tanks and armoured cars and their weapons for use on land, huge warships and submarines with weapons to be used at sea and bombers and jetfighters for air warfare. Chemical warfare, nuclear bombing and missile attacks are inescapable if a mini or major, world war starts.
Scientists have developed new weapons for a number of reasons. First of all, most scientists have been acting on the orders of the governments or rulers of their countries. They were in government service or took money or funds from the government. They had to use their scientific knowledge for the development of new weapons according to the wishes of their governments. Secondly, scientists, like other citizens, are patriots (lovers of their countries). Russian, American and Chinese scientists. have invented or developed new weapons mostly for patriotic reasons. Thirdly, some scientists want to become famous for their new intentions to be used in war.
Science should be used for peaceful purposes alone. All countries should agree on riot to make use of the ability of their scientists for destructive purposes
Science and War – 2000 Words Essay
- Our failure to stop war
- Modern war, all the more shocking and atrocious
- The difference between animal fighting and human war
- Nationalism proud of nations of military triumph
- Causes behind the wars
- The menace of modern technological war
- Science, foe and friend of human being
- The horrors of the war
- Modern sophisticated arms, a source of more heinous and devastating war
- The difference between the ancient and modern war
- The death, and destruction caused by the Third world war
- Our inability to learn a lesson from the previous destruction
- The need to use science as a means of human progress
Though we are proud of our continuous march along the path of civilization, we have not done anything to stop war. On the contrary, we are constantly on the lookout to find out new means, not for the good of mankind but for the destruction of human beings in wars. War, indeed, is a blight of our civilization. As long as men are engaged in this shabby and bloody affairs, they take pleasure in inflicting untold pains and miseries on their fellow beings and killing them in cold blood like flies. War is always cruel as it teaches to fly at each other’s throats.
Modern war is all the more shocking and atrocious. There had been conflicts, battles and wars all through human history. In ancient days wars were fought for personal glory, lust for power, conquest of new lands, plunder and booty, religious beliefs and simply to quench the blood-thirsty instinct of the marching hoards and their war crazy lords and leaders. Sometimes battles continued for years and decades. Thus the savage and the uncivilized races destroyed the civilized ones. The cruel exploits and adventures of Goths and Huns in Europe and the stories of unsparing and relentless attacks and massacres by the ruthless Mongols-Changaiz Khan and Halakoo Khan still send waves of shudder through the readers.
Animals also fight but they do not fight for the pleasure of killing as the homopalenessdo. They fight for food, over mates or to drive away the invaders, but not for show of strength, the conquest of land and to subordinate others. Man, by nature, is militant and follower of Mars – the war god. Instead of settling the differences and disputes amicably and peacefully, nations prefer the path of war.
“Nation-state breeds wars among the nations. Any action in favour of collective humanity oul-side the limits of the state and nationality is impossible”, wrote Bernhardi.
Nationalism attaches infinitely greater importance to the nations military triumph, political supremacy and economic success. It is the open cult of brute force and money power, the obscene worship of Mars and Mammon – the two guardian deities of the nation state. Lemartine was right when he cried. “Nations! That’s a word that means barbarism”.
Why do the nations fight? The main causes behind wars are: Pridep fear, hatred, distrust, greed, jealousy and narrow – mindedness. The big and powerful nations are proud of military power and economic superiority. The smaller and weaker nations are afraid of their powerful neighbours and live under the shadow of constant fear and economic exploitation. The capitalist and the communist nations hate and mistrust one another. The Big Powers are jealous of each other’s scientific progress and growing military strength. All these have resulted in arms race and cold war.
In the final analysis, the most important factor behind the modern wars is ‘Surplus’ the economic cause. America and Russia are spending billions of dollars and Roubles on building up armies and piling war materials. So much so that they have far exceeded their own war requirements and needs. The ultimate result is they are busy supplying and selling the surplus to the other smaller that peace loving nations, which are comparatively poor and cannot afford the luxury of war. They are dragged or forced into military confrontation by the Big Powers.
The Korean War of 1953, the Viet Nam War that lasted for fourteen years, the perpetual bloodshed between the Arabs and the Israel (a creation of the Imperialist Englishmen and a bleeding sore in Arab-body politics), the Iran – Iraq War, the decade old Afghan war are all the cruel games of the economic wizards – the American and the Russian (Communist) Block. The tension between Pakistan and India, India and Sri Lanka, and the African frays and fights – all are the results of the surplus sales and aids. The war between Afghanistan and US, Iraq and US is the worst example of destruction of masses and buildings.
The most scientifically advanced nations are also the most potential war arsenals now days. No doubt, we must be grateful to modern science and technology for the spectacular economic progress in the world. But there is one dark cloud that hangs on the horizon and mars the beauty of war. The twentieth century is the age of science and war. They are the two aspectsthe bright and the dark sides of the modern civilization.
No doubt science is creative and it has immensely administered to human comforts and well – being of mankind. Science and its twin sister technology have made the modern civilization, what it is today a period of all embracing and all around progress in human history. The present deluge of knowledge and explosion information is the direct results of scientific progress. Never was it truer than now that knowledge is power and power always corrupts; whereas absolute power corrupts absolutely. Science has put colossal power in the hands of nations, which the politicians are misusing, not for peaceful purposes but for destructive designs in wars. Science is creative but war is destructive.
Commenting on the destructive tendency Karl Mannheim pointed out in his lecture (Rational and Irrational Elements in Contemporary society).
“If, therefore, the city is destroyed by the deadly means of modern warfare, this must be attributed solely to the fact that the development of man’s technical power over nature is far ahead of development of his moral faculties and his knowledge of guidance and government of society”
War is always cruel and destructive. But science has made it all the more destructive and devastating, expeditious and extensive, more gruesome and grim. It has been cajoled and condemned by different thinkers. Tennyson celebrated Wellington and Waterloo, To Kipling, “God is Lord of our far-flung battle – line”. For Southey victory is justified as all costs – “For things like that must happen in a famous – victory”. Professor David Starr says: “ War is antibiological and dysgenic in its population”. Lord Bertrand Russell believed that war is an essential element of western civilization. The modern war Lords believe that fear is the best deterrence. Sonie demographers think that war is a biological necessity as it acts as positive check on populations.
Whatever may be the views and convictions about war, it is always devilish, degenerating and dangerous. The last century has already witnessed two Great Wars – 1914-18, 1939-45. The horrors of the wars, huge toll of human lives, immense loss of property and resource, heinous and inhuman war crimes; and above all the aftermath miseries, diseases and moral decay, have shocked the human conscience and plunged the world into gloom. The peoples of the world have realized that war is great curse and must be abolished.
The birth of the UNO after II Great War has given some rays of hope. The World Body has two noble aims:
- To establish lasting peace in the world
- To fight against the social evils like ignorance, poverty, diseases and social
It is rather an intriguing question, whether advancement in science is the cause of world devastating wars; or wars are the cause of advancement of science. But as we see modern scientific inventions are being more and more converted in armoury of war and military technologies. The growing arms race among the different countries and the nightmare of nuclear war are dangerous threats for the peace in the world.
Gone are the days of bravery, courage and heroism when the contending armies used to fight face to face with swords and arrows. The invention of gunpowder has taken away that element of man-to-man confrontation. Warfare or battles were grim and bloody affairs, yet they were confined in limits. It had its owns ethics also. The induction of gunpowder had extended the circle of fighting over long distances and over at nights. Still wars had their frontiers and were limited to the fighting forces in the field.
In the hands of Napoleon who dreamt of universal monarchy, war became almost an exact science and warfare, pretty scientific. He introduced elements of surprise and swiftness in the art of fighting and so warfare became a very grim affair. With the new inventions of science and development of technology in the 20th century warfare has become extremely grim, cruel and inhuman business.
War was confined to land and sea till the invention of airplane. The use of planes and aerial attacks in the First World War completely shattered the concept of front and the boarders of war. War became more mechanized. Aeroplanes were used to bomb enemy military targets. Even civilian populations were not spared. The use of gases, particularly mustard gas introduced the element of chemical warfare in the new war strategy. The gas boiled men to death. Those who escaped extinction became deformed beyond recognition, mad or mental wrecks. The Germans. unleashed bacteriological warfare to kill the innocent population, in thousands by causing epidemics. Termite used in bombs dropped on the civilian population, spread great dread and havoc among the people. Victory! What crimes were committed in the name?
Science has completely changed the whole complex, range and strategy of modern warfare. Modern war is a three–field warfare – mechanical, chemicals and biological. It is totalitarian warfare. Not only the fighting nations and the soldiers are involved in the cruel exercise, but also the non-combatant countries and the whole civilian populations become helpless victims of war. The after – effects of war are all the more horrible and horrendous. It destroys the whole moral texture of the society. In a modern war it is the victory of the dying over the dead.
All these facts are borne out by the Second Great War (1939-45). The whole world was under the grip of warfare. It beat all the past records of deaths and destructions. It was not only a war between men and the superman (the Europeans and the Germans) but it also dragged the peace-loving nations into the foul game. The combatants – the Allies and the Axis. Power used or put fresh scientific technology in long exercise. It was a three-pronged thrust by land, sea and air.
The bloodiest and bravest battle was fought at Dunkirk, in northern France. It raged for fourteen days when the Germans bombed every inch of enemy land and the Englishmen spared no efforts to evacuate the forces. The Germans aeroplanes (in hundreds) bombed London and other cities. Rocket bombs were fired from bases on the coast of Holland caused great havoc and destruction. Hitler became a cruel symbol of death and destruction. The Allies – the British and the Americans in particular, were ruthless in bombing and destroying German cities. The dropping of two atom bombs was the climax of the unprecedented use of scientific techniques in war. They reduced Hiroshima and Nagasaki to rubbles in a jiffy. The war had completely shattered the economic system of the nation states. The citizens of the world prayed for God’s mercy and peace.
The English Prime Minister Mr. Churchill, the American President Mr. Roosevelt and Mr. Stalin the Russian President had made a grand show of the great inventions of science. If the world wants to escape another holocaust, the scientists must decide not to put their inventions into the hands of crazy politicians.
It is sad that the nations have not learnt any lesson from the past. The clouds of war are already gathering on the horizon. Nowadays the whole world has become just like a big war camp with the war material: strewed about simply waiting for match stick – some trifling cause, some political excuse as the German claim on the port of Danzig in Poland, flared up the Second Great War. God forbid! If the Third war starts, the human species will be wiped out from the surface of the earth. Science harnessed military technology shall definitely lead to the indiscriminate use of atomic war weapons – ships and submarines, warplanes and long-range missiles, poisonous gasses and compression gas, atom bombs and hydrogen bombs, laser rays and germinal bombs and other secret weapons behind the star war. What novel power of self-destruction god has put into man’s hands!
War is thus an immeasurable fully, an inexpiable crime, an irreparable disaster; an unpardonable sin, a homicidal madness, an outbreak of savage fury, and recurrent catastrophe that maims and mars human civilization. Self – interest shall never teach the nations to eschew war. We cry progress! But what man has made of man?
After all science has its significance for the human race, only if it continues to exist on the earth. If humanity itself is vaporized by science, obviously it will mean death of science as well. Science is for good of mankind and it ought not to be used against man. Let the nations heed to the warning of Lord Beveridge:
“If with our growing control over nature, we could abolish war, we shall plunge deeper into a hell of evil imagining and evil doing. The only hope for human survival lies in nothing short of ‘spiritual reconstruction’. Let us put out hearts together and not our minds together.”