Our movement into the 21st century. has neither been smooth nor very happy as we find the atmosphere and water increasingly polluted. In the cities, the air is getting dustier and dirtier.
Firstly, the tremendous rise in population or population explosion is much at the basis of the pollution problem. With the increase in population, we need more houses, more motorcycles, cars, buses and other vehicles emitting (giving out) smoke and gases. Naturally, forest areas are reduced and trees are cut down to make room for houses and commercial centers.
Secondly, the setting up of industrial centers and factories in areas close to cities and towns adds to the already existing pollution. No doubt, cities go on expanding and reach close to industrial areas or estates outside. Therefore, the machinery in factories should be such as emits (gives out) the least dangerous exhaust (gas and steam) or makes the least noise.
Thirdly, tons of garbage (rubbish or refuse) and industrial wastes are dumped (unloaded) underground or in rivers and seas. This causes insanitation (dirty living conditions), killing of fish or sea animals or harms their growth. The falling oil from ships in the ocean proves dangerous to the sea life. The atomic waste of atomic reactors thrown into the sea contaminates (makes impure) the water.
Fourthly, the burning of chemicals and giving out (emission of carbon dioxide and other gases by heavy machines and cars add greatly to atmospheric pollution. The carbon dioxide stops the sunrays from returning from the earth’s surface after reflection. Besides heating the earth, it causes storms, floods, and dryness. The burning and air-conditioning processes disturb the ozone layer above the atmosphere dangerously.
Fifthly, noise pollution is no. less painful and harmful than the pollution caused by gases and chemicals. The sounds of horns, machines, flying airplanes, weapons in operation, loudspeakers and music sets and loud cries and quarrels of people pollute the atmosphere badly. This noise pollution disturbs the mind, upsets regular work or study and helps in causing nervous and mental disorders.
Now we are faced with vision pollution when we find thousands of advertisement hoardings or billboards on busy roads and street corners. We find wall chalking and slogans all around us in small towns and small cities. Even buses and trains are crowded with advertisements. All this disturbs us, as we drive our vehicles or move along the roads. TV and newspapers thrust advertisements on us making us uncomfortable and confused.