Essay on Causes and Effects of Flood

Outlines for Flood Essay

  • the flood of 2010 in Pakistan was the greatest natural disaster in a century or more when the floods began and what they resulted in

  • causes of the floods

  • death and destruction brought on by the floods

  • the condition of the flood

  • affected people and suggestions

  • use of the funds for the flood-affected

  • some questions from the government.

“We should examine the national situation and decide whether floods are going to control or we would manage them for the public good.”

Rivers are in flood in some parts of the world every year. Floods cause large-scale death of human beings and animals and destruction of property, crops, trees and vegetation. They disrupt the road and rail communication systems badly and cause suspension of regular bus and train services. Even airports and runways are affected and air services can be suspended. Electric poles are uprooted and gas and oil pipes are rendered (caused to become) unserviceable. Bridges are washed away disconnecting one region (wide area) from another.

The advanced countries like the US, Russia and China have controlled floods in a big way. It is worthwhile (rewarding) to learn their methods of river and flood control. It is also advisable to plan the use and diversion of floodwaters in times of emergency. The four provinces of our country and the neighbouring areas from where glaciers melt or water flows into our rivers in any form should all be associated with our water programmes and policies.

Firstly, the main cause of floods is, of course, excessive (too much) rainfall on the mountains and in the catchment areas. The rainwater flows into the rivers that overflow their banks on the plains. The floodwaters enter all the low-lying areas near or at a distance from the rivers. They spare neither villages nor towns nor cities. Secondly, storms and cyclones (circular strong winds) and hurricanes (violent storms) join the sea waves and cause the flooding of the coastal areas on a wide scale. Such flooding took place in Southern Sindh and Makran in Balochistan in the past and recently in 2007. Thirdly, there are breaches in the existing dams or water reservoirs causing the inundation (flooding) of wide areas, destruction of whole villages and towns. The people of interior Sindh and Balochistan faced such a situation several times. The danger of the bursting of the Mirani dam in Balochistan forced the people in the adjoining areas to flee to safer places causing them great hardship. There was acute (very great) shortage of food items, drinking water and medicines and the prices of goods of daily use shot up abnormally in the flood-affected areas.

The need to control floods in the country is paramount (supreme). For this, big dams across the rivers may be constructed. The floodwater that goes waste or causes large-scale destruction can be stored in them. Some empty dams or reservoirs, natural or manmade, may be kept lying for emergencies so that the extra floodwater may be fed into them. This water can be used later in the dry season for agricultural purposes.

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The courses of the rivers may also be changed to facilitate free flow of water into the sea Or the rivers can be made to flow over low-lying areas that can be converted (changed) into lakes with floodwater. The riverbeds can be dug deeper by the armed forces and labour force. Water passages or channels parallel to the already existing rivers and canals may be dug with modern machines. These may be kept empty for the absorption of rainwater or glacier flow. The flood-control and irrigation experts in each province should visit the areas most exposed to floods and should take necessary measures for controlling future floods. The great floods of 2010 in Pakistan would not have caused so much destruction if the steps explained here had been taken.

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