“Floods are tests of our past preparations, planning, and use of scientific and technological skills.”
Rivers are in flood in at least some parts of the world every year. No doubt, some advanced countries like the US and China have controlled floods to a great extent (in a big way).
The main cause of floods is, of course, excessive (too much) rainfall on the mountains. The rainwater flows into the rivers that overflow their banks on the plains. The floodwater enters all the low-lying areas near or at a distance from the river. It spares neither villages nor towns nor cities.
The floodwater causes the worst damage to the standing crops and grains in the countryside. Sometimes it affects the agriculture of the whole country and there is a danger of food shortages. The repeated floods in Pakistan, especially in the Punjab, Sindh, and Balochistan, have been a serious blow to the agricultural economy of the country. Thousands of cattle get killed when there are heavy floods. There is also a shortage of animals needed to plow the land. Floods affect the production of vegetables very badly.
When the fields are flooded, vegetables get spoilt in huge quantities. Floods disrupt (upset) the system of communication in the country. It becomes difficult to travel or send goods from one part of the country to another except, of course, by air. Prices of things of daily use go up as floods affect their production and supply.
The need to control floods in the country is paramount (supreme). For this, big dams across the rivers may be constructed. The floodwater that goes waste or causes large-scale destruction can be stored in them. This water can be used for agricultural purposes in the dry season. The courses of the rivers may also be changed, if necessary. Thus, the rivers can be made to pass through low-lying areas that can be converted (changed) into lakes with floodwater. Our flood control experts should visit the advanced countries to learn modern techniques (regular methods) of controlling floods.
Outlines for A River in Flood
floods in rivers occur in some parts of the world at least
have been controlled by the advanced countries
the main causes of floods
how to control floods
what happens after a flood
the need to control floods