Chapter 14 (Transport) F.Sc 1st Year Biology Short Questions

What is interstitial fluid? Write composition of interstitial fluid.

The pressure within capillaries causes continuous leakage of fluid from the blood plasma into the spaces that surround the capillaries and tissues. This fluid is known as interstitial fluid. It is the medium for the exchange of materials. Interstitial fluid consists primarily of water, but also has the dissolved nutrients, hormones, gases, wastes, and small proteins from the blood.

Define hypertension or What is meant by hypertension?

It is a condition of high blood pressure. Prolonged high blood pressure damages the lining of the blood vessels and also leads to weakening of heart muscles, with declining efficiency of its pumping action.

How thrombus is formed? or How thrombus formation take place?

Thrombus is a solid mass or plug of blood constituents (clot) in a blood vessel. This mass may, block (wholly or only in part) the vessels in which it forms, or it may be dislodged or carried to some other location in the circulatory system, in which case it is called an embolus. Thrombosis is the formation of thrombus.

Define heart attack or Myocardial infarction. or what is heart attack.

Blockage of blood vessel in the heart by an embolus (or by locally formed thrombus) causes necrosis or damage to portion of heart muscles, a condition known as a heart attack or technically myocardial infarction.

What are conditions to prevent heart attack?

  • Avoid too much fatty food (especially rich in cholesterol).
  • Maintain normal body weight.
  • Control blood pressure by regular walk and exercise.
  • Do not smoke.

What is stroke or cerebral infarction? or Define stroke and write its effects.

If the normal flow of blood is blocked by an embolus (or a locally formed thrombus), in a blood vessel in the brain, and causes necrosis, or death, of the surrounding neural tissue (owing to lack of Oz), this condition is called a stroke or cerebral infarction.

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