Chapter 10 (Kingdom Animalia) F.Sc 1st Year Biology Helping Notes

What are flame cells?

The excretory system of Platyhelminthes consists of branching tubes ending in bulb-like cells, the flame cells.

Give examples of flatworms.

Dugesia (Planaria), Fasciola (liver fluke), and Tuena (tape worm) are common examples of flatworms.

What are proglottids?

The body of tape worm is ribbon-like and divided into segments called proglottids which contain mainly sex organs.

How reproduction occurs in Platyhelminthes?

The Platyhelminthes reproduce both by sexual and asexual means of reproduction. Asexual reproduction is by fission. The sexually reproducing species are hermaphrodite, i.e., both male and female reproductive organs are present in the same individual. Larval form is sometimes present.

Give two / four adaptations for parasitic mode of life in Platyhelminthes (flatowrms).

  • The epidermis is absent and there is formation of resistant cuticle for protection.
  • They have developed adhesive organs, such as hooks and sucker, for attachment to the host.
  • There is degeneration of muscular system and nervous system.
  • The digestive system has become simplified due to increased dependency on host.

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