Chapter 1 (Biology & its Major Fields of Special.) 1st Year Short Questions

Explain two methods to produce clones.

There are three common types of cloning:

  • Gene cloning
  • Cell cloning/tissue culture
  • Organism cloning

Gene cloning: It is the manipulation (treatment or use) of genes. In this process, desired genes or pieces of DNA are introduced into a host (usually bacteria) by means of a carrier (called a vector, usually plasmid of bacterium) system. The foreign DNA becomes a permanent feature of the host. It is replicated and passed on to daughter cells along with host DNA.

Cell cloning / Tissue culture: Multiplication or asexual production of a line of cells genetically identical to the original is called cell cloning or tissue culture. It is now common in plants however not yet possible in animals. Bacteria and yeast naturally exercise this technique.

Organism cloning: Organisms with desired characters (transgenic organisms) may be produced in large numbers by an asexual process without the involvement of meiosis and fertilization. Such production of organisms is called organism cloning.

Define an ecosystem with an example.

An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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