Level: F.Sc (Pre-Engg)
Class: 1st Year
Board: Punjab Textbook Board
Chapter 1: Biology & its Major Fields of Specialization
Type: Short Questions
Author: Kiran Mehtab
PDF Size: 2 MB
Define biological control with an example, or What is biological control of pests?
In biological control, the harmful organisms (e.g., pests) are controlled by letting them be eaten or killed by their predatory species e.g., an aphid that attacks walnut tree is being controlled biologically by a wasp that parasitizes this aphid.
Write down important features of a good theory?
A good theory is testable, predictable and verifiable. It predicts results which can be reproduced. It can explain an effect but not a cause. It can be disproven. It is not a statement of fact, but a statement of likelihood. It invites disagreement, alternative, and better explanations. It constantly undergoes revision and refinement.
What is deductive reasoning? Give examples.
Deductive reasoning is reasoning from the general to the specific. It involves drawing specific conclusion from some general principle/assumptions. Deductive logic of “if …… then” is frequently used to frame testable hypothesis. For example, if we accept that all birds have wings (premise # 1) and that sparrows are birds (premise # 2), then we conclude that sparrows have wings. If all green plants require sunlight for photosynthesis then any green plant when put in dark would not synthesize glucose, the end product of photosynthesis.
Define population and give its examples.
A population is a group of organisms of the same species located in the same place at the same time. Examples are the number of rats in a field of rice, the number of students in your biology class, or human population in a city.