Atomic theory: The theory that all material substances are composed of minute particles or’ atoms of a limited number of kinds; hence any theory concerning the structure of the atom. According to modern discoveries, the atom is now regarded not as an ultimate particle but as a system consisting of a small dense nucleus having a positive electric charge of 1 to 92 or more and 1 to 92 or more electrons surrounding it in concentric “Shells.”
Atomic bomb: Atomic bomb is a bomb in which the explosion is caused by a sustained neutron chain-reaction (i.e. a self-propagating reaction) resulting from the fission of the nuclei of atoms of uranium or its derivatives. To make the chain-reaction successful, there is a critical size of the uranium or plutonium lump, smaller than which does not support the chain-reaction. As such it is usual to take two lumps each less than the critical size, but together larger than this. As soon as they are brought together, an explosion results.
From the above-mentioned explanations, it is obvious that when the energy of the atom is, suddenly released it can be used for destructive purposes of an unprecedented nature. It destroys all forms of life within a radius of several miles and leaves such terrific effects in the atmosphere for hundreds of miles all round that children born in the next generation are affected by it. The fall of Japan has been attributed to two relatively small bombs, one of which exploded in the air. It is reported that the killed and injured numbered about one-third of the population and about half of the buildings of the city were destroyed. The nature of the atomic bombs is being kept as a guarded secret.
There are also indications that atomic energy can be used for accelerating the growth of crops and prove an invaluable ally in agriculture. It can thus help mankind to solve the vexed problem of food shortage. It is believed that vast tracts of uncultivated land will be converted into fertile areas by the atomic processes. When such experiments prove successful, the man may be able to banish hunger and want. A living will not only become cheap but also more comfortable.
It is also believed that with the appearance of this new factor the means of transportation will receive an immense impetus. With the swift. inexpensive and more comfortable means of communication at our disposal, more men will travel by land, sea and air and thus foster international relations.
However, these are all dreams yet to be fulfilled. So we have got in our hands the most terrible weapon of destruction. So long as we recognize separate national frontiers, people will continue to hate each other. The man beyond the border is thought of not as a friend but as a potential enemy.
How is it possible to break national frontiers and make man see that the way of hatred is the way of self-destruction. The only way to do so is to make each citizen in every nation look dispassionately at war. If we accept that national frontiers and wars are justified, then we shall not be able to prevent the use of the atomic bomb by the nation which possesses it against its enemies.
So we are obliged to the concept of the World State. A World State is inevitable. If it does not come peacefully, it will be brought about by war.