Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal was born at Sialkot on November 9, 1877. His father, Sheikh Nur Muhammad was a mystic from whom Iqbal inherited mysticism and deep love for religion. He received his early education at a local high school and passed Intermediate Examination from Murrey College. He had the good fortune of studying Arabic, Persian and Islamiat under the inspiring guidance of Syed Mir Hassan. He went to Lahore for higher studies and joined the Government College. There he came under the influence of Dr. Arnold who inspired him to study Philosophy. In 1899, he obtained his Master’s Degree in Philosophy and joined the teaching staff of the Government College, Lahore.
After that he went to Europe in 1905 for higher studies in Philosophy and Law. He obtained his Ph. D. in Philosophy from Germany. He was called to Bar in 1908, and he returned to India the same year. His stay in Europe was of great importance. He came into contact with the contemporary philosophical and political thought, but the Western civilization did not impress him much. Moreover, he had a close look at the Western civilization and did not like it. That is why he criticised it in his poetry.
On his return, he started his legal practice, but his heart was not in it. Most of his time he devoted to poetry, Philosophy and religion. In fact, he had great sympathy for the Muslims of India. He wanted to help them. He used poetry for the same purpose.
Dr. Muhammad Iqbal is the greatest Muslim thinker and poet of the century. He was an inspired and creative poet. For him, poetry was only a medium for expressing his philosophical ideas, religious beliefs and political message. He published many volumes of poetry which have become classics of literature. He was deeply interested in religion. Through poetry he gave us the message of hope and success. He neither told a lie no sold his opinions but his door was opened to every visitor.
In 1930. Iqbal presided over the Allahabad Session of the All India Muslim League. He gave here the idea of Pakistan. He asserted that the only solution of the problems of the Indian Muslims was a separate Muslim State. This was the first demand for Pakistan. But he did not live to see the new state. Iqbal’s genius was fully recognized by his nation in his lifetime. He was immensely popular among all sections of Muslims. All sorts of people-politicians, mystics, journalists and students–came to him for guidance and inspiration. He died in 1938. His death was a great loss for the Muslims.
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